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Finland

A. UN Convention status

A1. Ratification or conclusion of the UN Convention

Finland signed the UN Convention on 3 March 2007 but has not yet ratified it. Necessary changes to the law are being made. Priority is given to changing those Acts that have in practice prevented Finland from ratifying the CRPD. Ratification is one of the aims in the government platform. A cross-sectoral working group prepared a suggestion for government for proposing the ratification. Especially creating an efficient national monitoring system is needed. Parliament accepted the governmental bill to ratify the UN Convention on 3 March 2015. The ratification requires rapid changes in the law regarding people with intellectual disabilities. The law is expected to put into action on 1 March 2016.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2016-05-02

A2. Ratification or accession to the Optional Protocol

Finland signed the optional protocol of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities on 30 March 2007, but has not ratified it yet. The same working group concentrating on the ratification of the UN convention is also working on the ratification of the optional protocol. Parliament accepted the optional protocol alongside the UN Convention on 3 March 2015.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-04-01

A3. Declarations, Reservations and Objections

Finland has not registered any Declarations, Reservations or Objections. Finland accepts the UN Convention and the Optional Protocol and is working to ratify both of them.

Links

Update date: Sun, 2012-12-02

A4. Comprehensive review

A working group consisting of a broad representation of governmental power, municipalities and disability organisations is working on a comprehensive review of the existing legislation. Some changes have already been made and others are still waiting. On 1 January 2011 the Act on Home Municipality and the Social Welfare Act were modified to meet the demands of Article 19 of the UN Convention. Ratifying the Convention requires changes in the legislation in health and social care related to self-determination and the restriction of it. In August 2010 the social and health care working-group started its work to prepare the needed changes in the legislation of social and health care related to self-determination and its restriction. The objective is to establish a multi-professional co-operation, access and development in such a way that the need to resort to self-determination is reduced. The working-group presented its final report on 4 April 2014. In May 2013, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health set up a working-group which task is to 'match' the Disability Service Act (380/1987) and the Law on Intellectual Disabilities (519/1977) to a new special Disability Act. The working group submitted its final report on 16 April 2015 and the government presented for the parliament a new bill on the special services for people with intellectual disabilities. The bill will come into effect on 1 March 2016. The main addition is a regulation to strengthen self-determination of people with intellectual disability.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-04-01

A5. Focal point

The preparations required for the ratification of the UN Convention and the Optional Protocol are the responsibility of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. They set a working group on 16 May 2011. There is a broad representation of the government, municipalities and disability organisations in this working group. The working group finished its report at the end of 2013. The working group has proposed to establish a coordination body for monitoring the implementation of the UN Convention. This monitoring system will replace the current Disability Council, which is functioning cooperatively with The Minister of Health and Social Affairs.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-04-01

A6. Coordination mechanism

For the implementation of the ratification process a coordination system was established. In addition, there is an independent structure through which the ratification is followed. In Finland this task was given for the National Human Rights Institutions, which is formed by Human Rights Delegation and the Ombudsman of the Parliament. The task means coordination, counseling, education and communication related to the ratification.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2017-05-16

A7. Independent mechanism

An independent mechanism has not been established in Finland, although Finland’s Disability Policy Programme requires a monitoring system. Information on practice does not exist.

Links

Update date: Sun, 2012-12-02

A8. Official reporting

No state report will be due until two years after the date of CRPD ratification.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2015-03-03

A9. Shadow reporting

No shadow report has been prepared.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2017-05-16

B. General legal framework

B1. Anti-discrimination legislation

The Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014) promotes equality and prevents discrimination as well as enhances the protection provided by law to those who have been discriminated against. The act amended the old version (21/2004). People with disabilities are mentioned in section 15: Reasonable accommodation to realize equality of persons with disabilities. The Constitution of Finland (731/1999) sets everyone equal before law and requires equal treatment. The Ministry of Justice is working on revising the Non-Discrimination Act to fulfill the §6 in the Constitution of Finland.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-04-01

B2. Recognition of legal capacity

Recognition of legal capacity of persons with disabilities is mentioned in Finland’s Disability Policy Programme. A right to legal capacity of persons with disabilities is the responsibility of the Ministry of Justice. The Guardianship Services Act mentions that the legal capacity can be restricted in cases when the person cannot take care of himself/herself mostly in an economic sphere.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2017-05-16

B3. Accessibility of voting and elections

Participation is limited in Section 27 of the Constitution of Finland that states that people who are under guardianship may not be candidates in elections. Article L5 of the Electoral Code, Section 2 of the Election Act and Article L3211-3 (6) of the Public Health Code allow for full participation in voting. The Decision of the Ombudsman as of 6 May 2004 states that disabled persons' secrecy at the ballot must be ensured. This statement is grounded by Section 6 of the Constitution concerning secure equal treatment, as well as Section 14 of the Constitution, which refers to participation in substantive protection. The Ministry of Justice has produced guidelines on how to make sure that secrecy at the ballot for disabled persons is secured. Voting at the polling station is favored regarding the new guidelines and the accessibility must be considered. Otherwise, the voting secrecy must be ensured.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2017-05-16

B4. Official recognition of sign language

Basic recognition of Finnish sign language is covered in the Finnish legislation in the Constitution of Finland (731/1999). Section 17 states that the rights of persons using Sign Language and of persons in need of interpretation or translation assistance owing to disability shall be guaranteed. The Law on the Institute for the Languages of Finland (1403/2011) in Section 3 states that among the duties of the Institute for Languages of Finland is the co-ordination of the language planning of Finnish Sign Language. Section 4 states that there are language committees for Finnish, Swedish, Saami languages, Finnish Sign Language and Finnish Romani Language. The task of the committees is to give principled and general guidance in the languages. The Law on sign language (359/2015) in Section 2 states the generic linguistic rights for people who are using sing language in Finnish or in Finland’s Swedish. The law strengthens the rights and equality in different fields of administration (Section 4).

Links

Update date: Tue, 2017-05-16

B5. National disability strategy and action plan

The National Disability Strategy and action plan is included in the Finland's Disability Programme 2010-2015 (VAMPO). The VAMPO’s aim is to implement equality, non-discrimination and sufficient service and support to persons with disabilities. VAMPO is also published in plain language. In 2014 the National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) published the second monitoring report on the Finland's Disability Programme 2010-2015 (VAMPO-seurantaraportti II). The first one was published in 2013. A new programme has not planned yet.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2017-05-16

C. Accessibility

C1. Transport accessibility

The Act for Public Transportation (869/2009) requires in fourth section that 'the need of different population groups have to be taken account of when defining the standard of service'. The sixth section mentions examples of these population groups as follows: 'children, young people, women, men, elderly and disabled'. In the section 48 the law states that the holder of an operating permit has to define the quality of the service. Amongst other things the permit holder needs to also define the service and assistance available also for disabled service users. The standard of service on the national level is defined by the Ministry of Transport and Communications. Municipalities provide transport services to those who have severe disabilities that are causing exceptional mobility difficulties. A transport service may include an assistance service. This benefit is included in the Act on Disability Services. A Decree (275/2010) of the government says that government subsidies are given to municipalities to develop an accessible public transport.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2012-12-03

C2. Built environment accessibility

The built environment accessibility is not included in the Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014). In the Land Use and Building Act (132/1999) the objectives in land use planning are stated in the fifth section. The first of the eleven points to promote is: 'a safe, healthy, pleasant, socially functional living and working environment which provides for the needs of various population groups, such as children, the elderly and the handicapped'. The Land Use and Building Decree (895/1999) contains more detailed regulations on accessibility in buildings. The Finnish Building Code provides more technical regulations and guidelines which apply to new constructions. Especially, the sections F1 Barrier-free Building, F2 Safety in use of buildings and G1 Housing design set the requirements to accessibility in both public buildings and private homes.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-04-01

C3. ICT and Web accessibility

Finland does not have ICT and web accessibility legislation. There are however guidelines for designing web services in the public administration. There are recommendations for producing online services. Usability and accessibility of the services are particularly taken into account. The guidelines were first published in June 2005 and they have been updated in October 2012.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2012-12-03

D. Independent living

D1. Choice of living arrangements

Finland has signed the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, which obliges the states to ensure that people with disabilities can choose their place and type of residence as well as whom they want to live with on an equal basis with others. There is no legislation, which would determine living arrangements of persons with disabilities, there is only guidance.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2014-05-01

D2. De-institutionalisation

The Government of Finland made the first principle decision (2010) of the programme, according to which the number of people with ID living in institutions should be diminished from 2000 to 500 people within the next five years (during the years 2010 - 2015). This process got its confirmation in 2012, when the Government of Finland made the second principle decision (2012) to close down all the institutions, for the people with intellectual disability (ID). There are approximately 40,000 people with intellectual disability in Finland. About 1,480 of these people lived in institutions at the end of 2012. The aim is that by 2020 no one lives in institutions. De-institutionalisation is especially targeted to people with intellectual disabilities. People with other kind of disabilities rarely live in institutions and for example the statistics and indicator bank SOTKAnet does not separate any other disability groups living in institutions. The government resolution on housing of the intellectually disabled (21.1.2010) sets goals for housing programme for intellectually disabled persons in 2010-2015. These goals are:

  1. To manage a quick, but systematic and controlled decrease in the amount of places of residence in institutions.
  2. To produce approximately 1,500 apartments for intellectually disabled people moving out of institutions and 2,100 apartments for adult intellectually disabled people moving away from their childhood homes
  3. All of this adds up to 3,600 apartments for people with intellectual disabilities. The plan is to produce 600 apartments per year for six years.

The National plan on developing community living arrangements (8 November 2012) sets as a national goal that by 2016 there is a maximum of 500 people living in institutions. The existing institutions work together with municipalities to produce a plan on replacing institutional care by the end of 2012.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2016-06-09

D3. Quality of social services

There are no Acts in Finland that would oblige certain quality standards of social services of people with disabilities, but the main steering and guidance based acts on this issue are the Social Welfare Act (710/1982), the Services and Assistance for the Disabled Act (380/1987) and the Act on Special Care for the Mentally Handicapped (519/1977).

Links

Update date: Mon, 2012-12-03

D4. Provision of assistive devices at home

Assistive equipment and adaptations are included in public service for people with disabilities. According to the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health ‘…assistive devices are available from health centers or by referral from the assistive device units of health care districts. Assistive device services include instruction on use, renewal and maintenance. The services are free of charge. Assistive devices for use to help with social life and recreation are also available as a disability service from social welfare departments.’ Also ‘…people with severe disabilities are reimbursed for renovations made to their home and for devices installed in the home, as well as for the costs of acquiring devices and equipment.’ Assistive devices are provided by local authorities. This service is based on the Services and Assistance for the Disabled Act and the Act on housing condition improvement of special groups.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2012-12-03

D5. Availability of personal assistance schemes

From 1 September 2009 an amendment to the Disability Service Act gave a subjective right to have a personal assistant to all disabled people, including people with an intellectual disability. This legislative change has involved a budgetary law amendment to the Law on Services for Disabled People. It introduced rights to assistance for domestic, social, educational and employment purposes, including a right to 30 hours per month to support recreation and social interaction. The law also underlines the importance of involving the person in the assessment of need. The Bill was drafted through collaboration between the Minister of Health and Social Services and the Finnish Disability Forum. The change also offers a broader choice of services, including personal assistance under persons own control.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2012-12-03

D6. Income maintenance

The disability pension is available to eligible disabled people. The criterion for receiving the pension is an incapacity to work. Persons who have a permanent mobility disability or blindness always receive the full amount of this pension. The disability allowance is an alternative to the disability pension and is tax free. It is divided into three levels based on the level of disability. The legislative basis for the disability pension is included in the National Pensions Act (568/2007). The maximum of the national pension is currently EUR 628.85 per month (for the person living alone) and EUR 557.79 per month (for persons living in a relationship). Disabled people may also receive earnings related pension regarding employment history. National pension and work pension are combined if work pension does not exceed the maximum amount, which is EUR 55 per month combining both pension sources. In addition, it is possible to receive other allowances, such as housing allowance, meals allowance, disability allowance or pensioners’ care allowance. People in rehabilitation programs receive rehabilitation benefit instead of disability pension.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2017-06-07

D7. Additional costs

According to the Services and Assistance for the Disabled Act, extra costs will be paid when a disability causes a need for special clothing and special diet.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2012-12-03

D8. Retirement income

National pension is a basic income for persons who are entitled only to a very small earnings-related pension or to none at all. The National pension is paid by the Social Insurance Institution. National and earnings-related pensions systems do not exclude disabled persons, if they fulfill the criteria. Earnings-related pension rights are accrued through employment and self-employment. There are several earnings-related pension providers. To qualify for a national pension, any other pension or benefits received may not exceed a certain limit. The age limits for the disability pension is 16-64 years and after that the disability pension is automatically converted into an old-age pension. The Act on Guarantee Pensions came into effect on 1 March 2011, which is paid to persons whose other retirement incomes are under the full guarantee pension. The pension reform, which was finally agreed on 20 November 2015, came into effect in the beginning of 2017. The reform holds some minor changes, e.g. the pension age limit will gradually increase to the age of 65.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2017-05-16

E. Education

E1. Special schools

According to the Basic Education Act and its amendments on special education, municipal educational authorities guarantee the nearest place of school. It does not matter if a pupil has a disability or not. However, parents have a right to choose another school, if they want. New amendments on special education include a range of types of educational support, where full-time special education is the strongest measure. This means that a special education usually is arranged in mainstream schools and separate special schools are decreasing. Pupils needing special support at school are receiving it both in general and special education. Over half of these students are fully or partially integrated into general education groups.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2012-12-03

E2. Mainstream schools

The school system itself is not subjective to the Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014). Basic Education Act (628/1998) has been amended (Amendment 642/2010) to provide support to disabled pupils. A pupil who has temporarily fallen behind with their studies or otherwise needs short-term support in learning shall be entitled to remedial teaching (Section 16). A pupil who has difficulties in learning or in going to school shall be entitled to part-time special-needs education. Section 16a on Enhanced support (Amendment 642/2010) provides for a learning plan devised for him or her, in collaboration with the pupil, the parent, carer or, where necessary, some other legal representative of the pupil. Enhanced support shall be determined multi-professionally, based on a pedagogical assessment of pupil welfare (Section 31a (1) and (2)). The education provider shall give a written account of the provision of special-needs support, to be reviewed at least by the second year class and before transfer to the seventh year class. The decision on special needs support shall determine the pupil's primary teaching group, possible interpretation and assistant services and other services where needed, such as exceptional teaching arrangements referred to above. Before a decision on special needs support is made, the education provider should also seek out written reports on the pupil’s progress.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-04-01

E3. Sign language and Braille in school

Deaf and deaf-blind persons have the right to education in sign-language. This kind of teaching is organised in special classes or units of mainstream schools (see Basic Education Act 628/1998). Special attention is focused on culturally sensitive instruction.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2012-12-03

E4. Vocational training

Vocational training providers are subject to the Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014). The fifth section of the law requires that 'a person commissioning work or arranging training shall where necessary take any reasonable steps to help a person with disabilities to gain access to work or training, to cope at work and to advance in their career' (Non-Discrimination Act 21/2004). In determining what constitutes 'reasonable' the law directs attention to the costs of the measures that need to be taken, to the financial position of the training provider and to availability of other funds. Vocational education and training are mainly the responsibility of the Ministry of Education. Key legislation consists of the Vocational Education and Training Act (630/1998), the Vocational Adult Education Act (631/1998) and the Act on the Financing of the Provision of Education and Culture (1705/2007). Vocational special education is stated in the Vocational Education and Training Act (630/1998) and it is mostly arranged in mainstream vocational schools with special curricula. There are also special schools for vocational education.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-04-01

E5. Higher education

Universities are subject to the Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014) as much as vocational training providers. The word 'koulutus' translates both to 'training' and 'education', so they are not separated in the Non-Discrimination Act. Also the Constitution of Finland (731/1999) states in its sixth section that everyone is equal before the law. The 16th section set that the 'public authorities shall, as provided in more detail by an Act, guarantee for everyone equal opportunity to receive other educational services in accordance with their ability and special needs, as well as the opportunity to develop themselves without being prevented by economic hardship' (Finnish law 731/1999). Universities may make special arrangements for entrance examinations, campus accessibility and learning support, but they are not obliged to provide any special educational support. There are, however, examples of such support in some institutions. Financial aid is available to all students in financial difficulty and rehabilitation allowances are payable to young disabled people in education but there is no specific, separate system of financial support for disabled students. There is not any legislation for physical arrangements at universities for disabled students, but there is a rehabilitation allowance for disabled students paid by the Social Insurance Institution, because this allowance helps the pathway to employment. This is stated in the Act on Rehabilitation and Rehabilitation Financing Benefits.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-04-01

F. Employment

F1. Non-discrimination in employment

According to the Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014), equality, work or training conditions must be arranged to help a person with disabilities 'to gain access to work or training, to cope at work and to advance in their career'. According to a report from the Finnish Institute for Occupational Health the main adaptations to workplaces are working times, ergonomic adaptations and the employee's own work planning. Since 2013 people with disabilities, who receive disability pension, have right to use the services of employment and economic office because of the new Act on public employment and business service (916/2012). Its aim is to promote equality (Section 6) and non-discrimination (Section 7) in working-life as mentioned in Non-Discrimination Act (Section 6(1).

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-04-01

F2. Public employment services

The Act of Vocational Rehabilitation (189/2001) and the Social Welfare Act (710/1982) include elements that support disabled persons to get jobs, although the focus is on the unemployed population in general. The main idea is to activate unemployed persons at the municipal level. Municipalities can organise activation activities themselves or they can buy this function from outside organisations. Most municipalities have established foundations with enterprises and non - governmental organisations to actualise this obligation. Public employment services have some services allocated to disabled people. These include for example vocational rehabilitation and wage subsidies. The report on disability and employment services points out that the services are multifaceted and individually tailored and therefore also rather variable. The Finnish term used (vajaakuntoinen) does not simply mean disabled but includes also other people, for example temporarily not fully fit for work. The question of who belongs to these groups is also not always fully clear.

The Finnish special problem had been the increasing numbers of disability pensioners. Approximately 25,000 people retire on a disability pension every year. A new way to hold these people in workforce is to develop special services to them. E.g the operational programme to reintroduce people with partial work ability into to the labour force has produced a concept for allowing people with partial work ability to continue working or to find employment. The concept’s objective is to ensure a seamless chain of services for people with partial work ability that enables to continue working or to find employment. Responsible for adopting the tools are either employer or the local Employment and Economic Development Office. Because of this programme Finland has to make changes in national legislation.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2014-05-01

F3. Workplace adaptations

Through a Government Decree on Benefits Related to Public Employment Service (1346/2002) the employer has the right to apply for a benefit for arranging the working conditions to enable an employment of a disabled person. Adaptations can cover necessary arrangements and new equipment to reduce the disadvantage in working conditions or hiring another employee to assist the disabled employee. Workplace adaptations are always means-tested. The benefit is limited to 4,000 euros per person regarding adaptations and 20 euros per hour for maximum 18 months in a case of a personal employed assistant. The Social Insurance Institution of Finland provides assistive devices needed to enable employment. Such devices include for example video magnifiers, Braille displays or other computer equipment. The main adaptations at workplaces concern working times, ergonomics and the employee’s own work planning. The employee receives subsidies for these adaptations. An employer employing a disabled employee could also get wage subsidies or other support in organizing the work. Assistive devices for work are available from The Social Insurance Institute of Finland.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-04-01

F4. Financial incentives

The employers employing a person with disabilities are entitled to different benefits also in the open labour market. The most common benefits are an employment subsidy and a subsidy for arrangement of the working conditions. Subsidy can also be granted for social enterprises, which support the employment of the disabled people. The employment subsidy is regulated by the Act on Public Employment and Enterprise Services (916/2012), which also regulates the subsidy for the arrangement of working conditions.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2017-07-21

G. Statistics and data collection

G1. Official research

There is no institution nor department especially responsible for research on disability equality or the collection of relevant data and statistics. The National Disability Policy (VAMPO) includes a key commitment that 'disability research shall be reinforced, the information base improved, and diversified high-quality methods developed in support of disability policy and monitoring'. The social insurance fund (Kela) publishes statistics on disability benefits and services (recipients etc.). The National Institute for Health and Welfare publishes statistics on institutional care and housing. At the Åbo Akademi University there is an Institute for Human Rights that conducts research on disability equality. The first Finnish disability research professorship was established with the support of disability organizations at the University of Helsinki (in the Faculty of Social Sciences. Disability research is part of the subject of social and public policy). The professor in disability research started his work at the beginning of August 2013. The term of office is 5 years (2013-2017). According to the professor in disability research the most important objective would be the research of social inclusion and well-being of people with disabilities.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-04-01

G2. Census data

There is a national census data but disabled people are not identified within it (the most recent in 2010). The number of people who use disability services is recorded in official statistics. Statistics on disability benefits are provided by The Social Insurance Institution of Finland.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2012-12-03

G3. Labour Force Survey

There is Finnish Labour Survey by The Employment Office. It distinguishes people with partial work incapacity. The European Labour Force Survey ad hoc module in 2002 and 2012 included Finnish disabled people.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-04-01

G4. Disability equality indicators

There are no specific disability equality indicators available.

Update date: Mon, 2012-12-03

H. Awareness and external action

H1. Awareness raising programs

Assistentti-info is a nationwide network of personal assistance and information services, which produces educational materials. It is an umbrella organisation and network, which consists of civil society associations and local and nationwide public service organisations. The network is financed by the Finnish Slot Machine Association that is controlled by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health. The network’s main focus is on developing personal assistance. The Threshold Association runs the network and its members are service providers, disability organisations and foundations. Assistentti-info is now controlled by disabled people and provides a national co-ordinating and information function, as well as raising awareness about personal assistance and independent living. Advice and legal support can also be provided to personal assistance users. The National Council of Disability (Valtakunnallinen vammaisneuvosto – VANE) is a governmental cooperative body for the development of social and public policy considering living conditions and equality of disabled people. In addition, the Association for People with Physical Disabilities (Invalidiliitto) organizes a web portal of accessibility (Esteetön.fi), which provides information, education and social campaigns.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2017-05-16

H2. Training for teachers

In Finland inclusive teacher training is not organised in disability-oriented streams. The aim is to provide to teachers with a range of knowledge and skills that they can apply in various settings and situations to arrange inclusive educational possibilities. This training is not focused on disability awareness, but on the opportunities for the participation of students with special needs. The training in university education science program includes minimum 35 credits and maximum 50 credits, as defined by the Act on university degree on education or teacher qualifications (1995/576) in the section 14.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2017-05-16

H3. Training for lawyers

There is no public information available on whether disability awareness / equality issues are part of lawyers’ training, or whether disabled people are involved in training. In legal science studies, after training in the court of justice, practical training is voluntary.

Update date: Mon, 2012-12-03

H4. Training for doctors

There is no public information available on whether disability awareness / equality issues are part of doctors’ training, or whether disabled people are involved in training. The degree of licence of medicine includes a mandatory training from 4 to 16 weeks in clinical methods (at the University of Oulu).

Update date: Mon, 2012-12-03

H5. Training for engineers

The Finnish Design for All (DfA) network is a member of the European Design for All eAccessibility Network EDeAN. It is an umbrella organisation and network, which has 39 members, including research institutions, universities and user organisations. Individual engineers active in this network usually work with the built environment and in communications. Engineers and graduate engineers have a mandatory job training, which is focused on the special field of technology that a student is studying (Lappeenranta University of Technology).

Links

Update date: Mon, 2012-12-03

H6. International development aid

Disability Partnership Finland (DPF) (formerly FIDIDA, Finnish Disabled People’s International Development Association) is a registered non-governmental organisation founded in 1989. DPF has had the status of a partnership organisation of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland since 2010. This status is helping to involve DPF in official development policy programmes between the North and the South. DPF includes nine Finnish disabled people’s organisations. Its basic aims are to promote the human rights of disabled people concerning disability and development co-operation. DPF activities are to gather and distribute information, provide training on disability and development, and to lobby for the mainstreaming of disability issues in national and international development co-operation.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2017-05-16

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                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => candidate-acceding-countries
                    [title] => Candidate / Acceding countries
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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                    [state] => 1
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                    [id] => 34
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [title] => FYR Macedonia
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 33
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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                )

            [32] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 35
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => iceland
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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            [33] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 36
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                    [rgt] => 67
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => montenegro
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 35
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [34] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 37
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                    [rgt] => 69
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => serbia
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [35] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 38
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => turkey
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 37
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                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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            [36] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 5
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                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => other-european-countries
                    [title] => Other European countries
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 4
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                    [id] => 39
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => liechtenstein
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 38
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                    [id] => 40
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => norway
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 39
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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        )

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                    [parent_id] => 1
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                    [rgt] => 20
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => a-un-convention-status
                    [title] => A. UN Convention status
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

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                    [id] => 3
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                    [rgt] => 3
                    [level] => 2
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 2
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                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 0000-00-00 00:00:00
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a2-ratification-or-accession-to-the-optional-protocol
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 3
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [3] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 5
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                    [lft] => 6
                    [rgt] => 7
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a3-declarations-reservations-and-objections
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 4
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 0000-00-00 00:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [id] => 6
                    [parent_id] => 2
                    [lft] => 8
                    [rgt] => 9
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a4-comprehensive-review
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 5
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [5] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 7
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                    [lft] => 10
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a5-focal-point
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 6
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 0000-00-00 00:00:00
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                )

            [6] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 8
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                    [rgt] => 13
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a6-coordination-mechanism
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 7
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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            [7] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 9
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a7-independent-mechanism
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 8
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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                )

            [8] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 10
                    [parent_id] => 2
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                    [rgt] => 17
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a8-official-reporting
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 9
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [9] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 11
                    [parent_id] => 2
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                    [rgt] => 19
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a9-shadow-reporting
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 10
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [10] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 12
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 21
                    [rgt] => 32
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => b-general-legal-framework
                    [title] => B. General legal framework
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 11
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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            [11] => stdClass Object
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                    [parent_id] => 12
                    [lft] => 22
                    [rgt] => 23
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b1-anti-discrimination-legislation
                    [title] => B1. Anti-discrimination legislation
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 12
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [12] => stdClass Object
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                    [parent_id] => 12
                    [lft] => 24
                    [rgt] => 25
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b2-recognition-of-legal-capacity
                    [title] => B2. Recognition of legal capacity
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 13
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [13] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 15
                    [parent_id] => 12
                    [lft] => 26
                    [rgt] => 27
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b3-accessibility-of-voting-and-elections
                    [title] => B3. Accessibility of voting and elections
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 14
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [14] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 16
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                    [lft] => 28
                    [rgt] => 29
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b4-official-recognition-of-sign-language
                    [title] => B4. Official recognition of sign language
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 15
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [15] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 17
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                    [rgt] => 31
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b5-national-disability-strategy-and-action-plan
                    [title] => B5. National disability strategy and action plan
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 16
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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                )

            [16] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 18
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 33
                    [rgt] => 40
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => c-accessibility
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 17
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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            [17] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 19
                    [parent_id] => 18
                    [lft] => 34
                    [rgt] => 35
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => c1-transport-accessibility
                    [title] => C1. Transport accessibility
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 18
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [18] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 20
                    [parent_id] => 18
                    [lft] => 36
                    [rgt] => 37
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => c2-built-environment-accessibility
                    [title] => C2. Built environment accessibility
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 19
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [19] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 21
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                    [lft] => 38
                    [rgt] => 39
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => c3-ict-and-web-accessibility
                    [title] => C3. ICT and Web accessibility
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 20
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [20] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 22
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 41
                    [rgt] => 58
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => d-independent-living
                    [title] => D. Independent living
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 21
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [21] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 23
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                    [lft] => 42
                    [rgt] => 43
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d1-choice-of-living-arrangements
                    [title] => D1. Choice of living arrangements
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 22
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [22] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 24
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                    [lft] => 44
                    [rgt] => 45
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d2-de-institutionalisation
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 23
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [23] => stdClass Object
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                    [rgt] => 47
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d3-quality-of-social-services
                    [title] => D3. Quality of social services
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 24
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
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                    [lft] => 48
                    [rgt] => 49
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d4-provision-of-assistive-devices-at-home
                    [title] => D4. Provision of assistive devices at home
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 25
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [25] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 27
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                    [rgt] => 51
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d5-availability-of-personal-assistance-schemes
                    [title] => D5. Availability of personal assistance schemes
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 26
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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                )

            [26] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 28
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                    [rgt] => 53
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d6-income-maintenance
                    [title] => D6. Income maintenance
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 27
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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            [27] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 29
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                    [rgt] => 55
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d7-additional-costs
                    [title] => D7. Additional costs
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 28
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [28] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 30
                    [parent_id] => 22
                    [lft] => 56
                    [rgt] => 57
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d8-retirement-income
                    [title] => D8. Retirement income
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 29
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [29] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 31
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 59
                    [rgt] => 70
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => e-education
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 30
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 5
                )

            [30] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 32
                    [parent_id] => 31
                    [lft] => 60
                    [rgt] => 61
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => e1-special-schools
                    [title] => E1. Special schools
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 31
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [31] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 33
                    [parent_id] => 31
                    [lft] => 62
                    [rgt] => 63
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => e2-mainstream-schools
                    [title] => E2. Mainstream schools
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 32
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [32] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 34
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                    [lft] => 64
                    [rgt] => 65
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => e3-sign-language-and-braille-in-school
                    [title] => E3. Sign language and Braille in school
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 33
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [33] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 35
                    [parent_id] => 31
                    [lft] => 66
                    [rgt] => 67
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => e4-vocational-training
                    [title] => E4. Vocational training
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 34
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [34] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 36
                    [parent_id] => 31
                    [lft] => 68
                    [rgt] => 69
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => e5-higher-education
                    [title] => E5. Higher education
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 35
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [35] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 37
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 71
                    [rgt] => 80
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => f-employment
                    [title] => F. Employment
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 36
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 4
                )

            [36] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 38
                    [parent_id] => 37
                    [lft] => 72
                    [rgt] => 73
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => f1-non-discrimination-in-employment
                    [title] => F1. Non-discrimination in employment
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 37
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [37] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 39
                    [parent_id] => 37
                    [lft] => 74
                    [rgt] => 75
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => f2-public-employment-services
                    [title] => F2. Public employment services
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 38
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [38] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 40
                    [parent_id] => 37
                    [lft] => 76
                    [rgt] => 77
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => f3-workplace-adaptations
                    [title] => F3. Workplace adaptations
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 39
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [39] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 41
                    [parent_id] => 37
                    [lft] => 78
                    [rgt] => 79
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => f4-financial-incentives
                    [title] => F4. Financial incentives
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 40
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [40] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 42
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 81
                    [rgt] => 90
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => g-statistics-and-data-collection
                    [title] => G. Statistics and data collection
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 41
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 4
                )

            [41] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 43
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 82
                    [rgt] => 83
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g1-official-research
                    [title] => G1. Official research
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 42
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [42] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 44
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 84
                    [rgt] => 85
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g2-census-data
                    [title] => G2. Census data
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 43
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [43] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 45
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 86
                    [rgt] => 87
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g3-labour-force-survey
                    [title] => G3. Labour Force Survey
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 44
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [44] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 46
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 88
                    [rgt] => 89
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g4-disability-equality-indicators
                    [title] => G4. Disability equality indicators
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 45
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [45] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 47
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 91
                    [rgt] => 104
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => h-awareness-and-external-action
                    [title] => H. Awareness and external action
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 46
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 6
                )

            [46] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 48
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 92
                    [rgt] => 93
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h1-awareness-raising-programs
                    [title] => H1. Awareness raising programs
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 47
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [47] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 49
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 94
                    [rgt] => 95
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h2-training-for-teachers
                    [title] => H2. Training for teachers
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 48
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [48] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 50
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 96
                    [rgt] => 97
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h3-training-for-lawyers
                    [title] => H3. Training for lawyers
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 49
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [49] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 51
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 98
                    [rgt] => 99
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h4-training-for-doctors
                    [title] => H4. Training for doctors
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 50
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [50] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 52
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 100
                    [rgt] => 101
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h5-training-for-engineers
                    [title] => H5. Training for engineers
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 51
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [51] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 53
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 102
                    [rgt] => 103
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h6-international-development-aid
                    [title] => H6. International development aid
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 52
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

        )

    [results] => Array
        (
            [14] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [parent] => EU Member States
                    [location] => Finland
                    [location_id] => 14
                    [location_slug] => finland
                    [themes] => Array
                        (
                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A1. Ratification or conclusion of the UN Convention
                                    [theme_slug] => a1-ratification-or-conclusion-of-the-un-convention
                                    [theme_id] => 3
                                    [contents] => Finland signed the UN Convention on 3 March 2007 but has not yet ratified it. Necessary changes to the law are being made. Priority is given to changing those Acts that have in practice prevented Finland from ratifying the CRPD. Ratification is one of the aims in the government platform. A cross-sectoral working group prepared a suggestion for government for proposing the ratification. Especially creating an efficient national monitoring system is needed. Parliament accepted the governmental bill to ratify the UN Convention on 3 March 2015. The ratification requires rapid changes in the law regarding people with intellectual disabilities. The law is expected to put into action on 1 March 2016.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-02 18:02:58
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Pending agreements on human rights
                                                    [url] => http://formin.finland.fi/public/default.aspx?nodeid=31373&contentlan=1&culture=fi-FI
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review (Human Rights Council, 2012)
                                                    [url] => http://formin.finland.fi/public/download.aspx?ID=100736&GUID={B14C4F3E-A67E-4C09-BF5C-1311A4349DAC}
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Current government platform
                                                    [url] => http://valtioneuvosto.fi/en/frontpage
                                                )

                                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => An article from the Minister of Health and Social Affairs
                                                    [url] => http://stm.fi/artikkeli/-/asset_publisher/vammaisten-henkiloiden-oikeuksia-koskevan-yk-n-yleissopimuksen-ratifiointi-etenee
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [4] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A2. Ratification or accession to the Optional Protocol
                                    [theme_slug] => a2-ratification-or-accession-to-the-optional-protocol
                                    [theme_id] => 4
                                    [contents] => Finland signed the optional protocol of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities on 30 March 2007, but has not ratified it yet. The same working group concentrating on the ratification of the UN convention is also working on the ratification of the optional protocol. Parliament accepted the optional protocol alongside the UN Convention on 3 March 2015.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-04-01 12:08:44
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Finland, pending agreements on human rights
                                                    [url] => http://formin.finland.fi/public/default.aspx?nodeid=31373&contentlan=1&culture=fi-FI
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => National Disability Policy VAMPO 2010-2015:
                                                    [url] => https://www.julkari.fi/handle/10024/112497
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [5] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A3. Declarations, Reservations and Objections
                                    [theme_slug] => a3-declarations-reservations-and-objections
                                    [theme_id] => 5
                                    [contents] => Finland has not registered any Declarations, Reservations or Objections. Finland accepts the UN Convention and the Optional Protocol and is working to ratify both of them.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-12-02 17:40:48
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review. FINLAND.  PDF
                                                    [url] => http://formin.finland.fi/public/download.aspx?ID=100736&GUID={B14C4F3E-A67E-4C09-BF5C-1311A4349DAC}
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Also to be found via the webpage 
                                                    [url] => http://formin.finland.fi/public/default.aspx?nodeid=44595&contentlan=1&culture=fi-FI
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [6] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A4. Comprehensive review
                                    [theme_slug] => a4-comprehensive-review
                                    [theme_id] => 6
                                    [contents] => A working group consisting of a broad representation of governmental power, municipalities and disability organisations is working on a comprehensive review of the existing legislation. Some changes have already been made and others are still waiting. On 1 January 2011 the Act on Home Municipality and the Social Welfare Act were modified to meet the demands of Article 19 of the UN Convention. Ratifying the Convention requires changes in the legislation in health and social care related to self-determination and the restriction of it. In August 2010 the social and health care working-group started its work to prepare the needed changes in the legislation of social and health care related to self-determination and its restriction. The objective is to establish a multi-professional co-operation, access and development in such a way that the need to resort to self-determination is reduced. The working-group presented its final report on 4 April 2014. In May 2013, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health set up a working-group which task is to 'match' the Disability Service Act (380/1987) and the Law on Intellectual Disabilities (519/1977) to a new special Disability Act. The working group submitted its final report on 16 April 2015 and the government presented for the parliament a new bill on the special services for people with intellectual disabilities. The bill will come into effect on 1 March 2016. The main addition is a regulation to strengthen self-determination of people with intellectual disability.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-04-01 12:56:18
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => A written question to the Speaker of Parliament 381/2012: 'What is the government intending to do to hurry the ratification of the UN Convention?'
                                                    [url] => http://www.eduskunta.fi/faktatmp/utatmp/akxtmp/kk_381_2012_p.shtml
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Amendments of the Act on Home Municipality (1377/2010)
                                                    [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/alkup/2010/20101377
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Amendments of the Act on Social Welfare Act (1378/2010) Service
                                                    [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/alkup/2011/20110923
                                                )

                                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Ministry of Social Affairs and Health
                                                    [url] => http://www.kela.fi/web/en/disability
                                                )

                                            [4] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The final report of the working group on self-determination
                                                    [url] => http://www.julkari.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/116147/URN_ISBN_978-952-00-3485-6.pdf?sequence=1
                                                )

                                            [5] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The final report on the reform of disability legislation
                                                    [url] => http://www.julkari.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/125919/URN_ISBN_978-952-00-3582-2.pdf?sequence=1
                                                )

                                            [6] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => A bill on the special services for people with intellectual disability
                                                    [url] => http://stm.fi/documents/1271139/1340739/HE_KehVL_luonnos_17.7.2015.pdf/3b7ccf4f-3116-4105-9ea9-8aa731d57296
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [7] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A5. Focal point
                                    [theme_slug] => a5-focal-point
                                    [theme_id] => 7
                                    [contents] => The preparations required for the ratification of the UN Convention and the Optional Protocol are the responsibility of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. They set a working group on 16 May 2011. There is a broad representation of the government, municipalities and disability organisations in this working group. The working group finished its report at the end of 2013. The working group has proposed to establish a coordination body for monitoring the implementation of the UN Convention. This monitoring system will replace the current Disability Council, which is functioning cooperatively with The Minister of Health and Social Affairs.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-04-01 13:09:00
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Answer from the Foreign Minister Erkki Tuomioja to a written question to the Speaker of Parliament 381/2012.
                                                    [url] => http://www.eduskunta.fi/faktatmp/utatmp/akxtmp/kk_381_2012_p.shtml
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Ratifyinig the UN Conventionand the Optional Protocol
                                                    [url] => http://valtioneuvosto.fi/hallitus/hallitusohjelma/fi.jsp
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => National Disability Programme VAMPO 2010-2015
                                                    [url] => https://www.julkari.fi/handle/10024/112497
                                                )

                                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Disability policy programme (Ministry of Social Affairs and Health)
                                                    [url] => http://stm.fi/en/article/-/asset_publisher/disability-policy-programme-involves-all-administrative-sectors
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [8] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A6. Coordination mechanism
                                    [theme_slug] => a6-coordination-mechanism
                                    [theme_id] => 8
                                    [contents] => For the implementation of the ratification process a coordination system was established. In addition, there is an independent structure through which the ratification is followed. In Finland this task was given for the National Human Rights Institutions, which is formed by Human Rights Delegation and the Ombudsman of the Parliament. The task means coordination, counseling, education and communication related to the ratification.
                                    [update_date] => 2017-05-16 14:21:02
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The Ministry of Foreing Affairs of Finland: press release 12 of May 2016
                                                    [url] => http://formin.finland.fi/Public/default.aspx?contentid=346189&contentlan=1&culture=fi-FI
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [9] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A7. Independent mechanism
                                    [theme_slug] => a7-independent-mechanism
                                    [theme_id] => 9
                                    [contents] => An independent mechanism has not been established in Finland, although Finland’s Disability Policy Programme requires a monitoring system. Information on practice does not exist.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-12-02 17:47:25
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Briefing on Finland’s Disability Policy Programme
                                                    [url] => http://www.sosiaaliportti.fi/en-GB/the-handbook-on-disability-services/finlands-disability-policy/#ots4
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [10] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A8. Official reporting
                                    [theme_slug] => a8-official-reporting
                                    [theme_id] => 10
                                    [contents] => No state report will be due until two years after the date of CRPD ratification.
                                    [update_date] => 2015-03-03 13:31:23
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => State reports to the UN Committee
                                                    [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=61&DocTypeID=29
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Link to all UN reporting cycle documentation:	
                                                    [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=61
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [11] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A9. Shadow reporting
                                    [theme_slug] => a9-shadow-reporting
                                    [theme_id] => 11
                                    [contents] => No shadow report has been prepared.
                                    [update_date] => 2017-05-16 14:23:00
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Civil society reports to the UN Committee
                                                    [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=61&DocTypeID=14
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [13] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => B. General legal framework
                                    [theme_title] => B1. Anti-discrimination legislation
                                    [theme_slug] => b1-anti-discrimination-legislation
                                    [theme_id] => 13
                                    [contents] => The Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014) promotes equality and prevents discrimination as well as enhances the protection provided by law to those who have been discriminated against. The act amended the old version (21/2004). People with disabilities are mentioned in section 15: Reasonable accommodation to realize equality of persons with disabilities. The Constitution of Finland (731/1999) sets everyone equal before law and requires equal treatment. The Ministry of Justice is working on revising the Non-Discrimination Act to fulfill the §6 in the Constitution of Finland.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-04-01 13:15:55
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014) 
                                                    [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/alkup/2014/20141325#Pidp810544
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The Constitution of Finland (731/1999)
                                                    [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/1999/en19990731
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The Ministry of Justice
                                                    [url] => http://oikeusministerio.fi/en/index.html
                                                )

                                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014), in English
                                                    [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/kaannokset/2014/en20141325.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [14] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => B. General legal framework
                                    [theme_title] => B2. Recognition of legal capacity
                                    [theme_slug] => b2-recognition-of-legal-capacity
                                    [theme_id] => 14
                                    [contents] => Recognition of legal capacity of persons with disabilities is mentioned in Finland’s Disability Policy Programme. A right to legal capacity of persons with disabilities is the responsibility of the Ministry of Justice. The Guardianship Services Act mentions that the legal capacity can be restricted in cases when the person cannot take care of himself/herself mostly in an economic sphere.
                                    [update_date] => 2017-05-16 16:01:02
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Guardianship Service Act (442/1999)
                                                    [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/1999/en19990442
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Finland’s Disability Policy Programme 2010-2015: Final report 
                                                    [url] => https://www.julkari.fi/handle/10024/130234
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [15] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => B. General legal framework
                                    [theme_title] => B3. Accessibility of voting and elections
                                    [theme_slug] => b3-accessibility-of-voting-and-elections
                                    [theme_id] => 15
                                    [contents] => Participation is limited in Section 27 of the Constitution of Finland that states that people who are under guardianship may not be candidates in elections. Article L5 of the Electoral Code, Section 2 of the Election Act and Article L3211-3 (6) of the Public Health Code allow for full participation in voting. The Decision of the Ombudsman as of 6 May 2004 states that disabled persons' secrecy at the ballot must be ensured. This statement is grounded by Section 6 of the Constitution concerning secure equal treatment, as well as Section 14 of the Constitution, which refers to participation in substantive protection. The Ministry of Justice has produced guidelines on how to make sure that secrecy at the ballot for disabled persons is secured. Voting at the polling station is favored regarding the new guidelines and the accessibility must be considered. Otherwise, the voting secrecy must be ensured.
                                    [update_date] => 2017-05-16 14:26:33
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Constitution of Finland
                                                    [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/1999/en19990731
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The Ministry of Justice: Improving voting of disabled people
                                                    [url] => http://www.oikeusministerio.fi/material/attachments/om/valmisteilla/kehittamishankkeet/oNbLORspL/Vammaisten_henkiloiden_aanestysmahdollisuuksien_parantaminen.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [16] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => B. General legal framework
                                    [theme_title] => B4. Official recognition of sign language
                                    [theme_slug] => b4-official-recognition-of-sign-language
                                    [theme_id] => 16
                                    [contents] => Basic recognition of Finnish sign language is covered in the Finnish legislation in the Constitution of Finland (731/1999). Section 17 states that the rights of persons using Sign Language and of persons in need of interpretation or translation assistance owing to disability shall be guaranteed. The Law on the Institute for the Languages of Finland (1403/2011) in Section 3 states that among the duties of the Institute for Languages of Finland is the co-ordination of the language planning of Finnish Sign Language. Section 4 states that there are language committees for Finnish, Swedish, Saami languages, Finnish Sign Language and Finnish Romani Language. The task of the committees is to give principled and general guidance in the languages. The Law on sign language (359/2015) in Section 2 states the generic linguistic rights for people who are using sing language in Finnish or in Finland’s Swedish. The law strengthens the rights and equality in different fields of administration (Section 4).
                                    [update_date] => 2017-05-16 14:35:07
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law on the Institute for Languages of Finland 
                                                    [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/alkup/2011/20111403
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Finnish Sign Language
                                                    [url] => http://suvi.viittomat.net/
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The Constitution of Finland
                                                    [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/1999/en19990731
                                                )

                                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law on sign language (359/2015)
                                                    [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/alkup/2015/20150359#Pidp1794896
                                                )

                                            [4] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The Government’s proposal to the Parliament for the law on sign language (HE 294/2014)
                                                    [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/esitykset/he/2014/20140294
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [17] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => B. General legal framework
                                    [theme_title] => B5. National disability strategy and action plan
                                    [theme_slug] => b5-national-disability-strategy-and-action-plan
                                    [theme_id] => 17
                                    [contents] => The National Disability Strategy and action plan is included in the Finland's Disability Programme 2010-2015 (VAMPO).  The VAMPO’s aim is to implement equality, non-discrimination and sufficient service and support to persons with disabilities. VAMPO is also published in plain language. In 2014 the National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) published the second monitoring report on the Finland's Disability Programme 2010-2015 (VAMPO-seurantaraportti II). The first one was published in 2013. A new programme has not planned yet.
                                    [update_date] => 2017-05-16 14:28:25
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Finland's Disability Programme VAMPO
                                                    [url] => https://www.julkari.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/112339/URN%3aNBN%3afi-fe201504224874.pdf?sequence=1
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => VAMPO in plain language
                                                    [url] => https://www.julkari.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/112358/URN%3aNBN%3afi-fe201504222931.pdf?sequence=1
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => VAMPO Monitoring Report I
                                                    [url] => https://www.julkari.fi/handle/10024/110226
                                                )

                                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => VAMPO Monitoring Report II:
                                                    [url] => https://www.julkari.fi/handle/10024/116678
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [19] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => C. Accessibility
                                    [theme_title] => C1. Transport accessibility
                                    [theme_slug] => c1-transport-accessibility
                                    [theme_id] => 19
                                    [contents] => The Act for Public Transportation (869/2009) requires in fourth section that 'the need of different population groups have to be taken account of when defining the standard of service'. The sixth section mentions examples of these population groups as follows: 'children, young people, women, men, elderly and disabled'. In the section 48 the law states that the holder of an operating permit has to define the quality of the service. Amongst other things the permit holder needs to also define the service and assistance available also for disabled service users. The standard of service on the national level is defined by the Ministry of Transport and Communications. Municipalities provide transport services to those who have severe disabilities that are causing exceptional mobility difficulties. A transport service may include an assistance service. This benefit is included in the Act on Disability Services. A Decree (275/2010) of the government says that government subsidies are given to municipalities to develop an accessible public transport.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-12-03 10:44:35
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Disability services and support – Ministry of Social Affairs and Health
                                                    [url] => http://www.stm.fi/sosiaali_ja_terveyspalvelut/sosiaalipalvelut/vammaispalvelut
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act for Public Transportation (869/2009) in Finnish
                                                    [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/2009/20090869
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Transposition of the technical standards in decision of European Commission (2008/164/EY) 
                                                    [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/data/normit/35023-TRAFI_7107_03.04.02.00_2011.pdf
                                                )

                                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The Handbook on Disability Services
                                                    [url] => http://www.sosiaaliportti.fi/fi-FI/vammaispalvelujen-kasikirja/itsenaisen-elaman-tuki/liikkuminen/
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [20] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => C. Accessibility
                                    [theme_title] => C2. Built environment accessibility
                                    [theme_slug] => c2-built-environment-accessibility
                                    [theme_id] => 20
                                    [contents] => The built environment accessibility is not included in the Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014). In the Land Use and Building Act (132/1999) the objectives in land use planning are stated in the fifth section. The first of the eleven points to promote is: 'a safe, healthy, pleasant, socially functional living and working environment which provides for the needs of various population groups, such as children, the elderly and the handicapped'. The Land Use and Building Decree (895/1999) contains more detailed regulations on accessibility in buildings. The Finnish Building Code provides more technical regulations and guidelines which apply to new constructions. Especially, the sections F1 Barrier-free Building, F2 Safety in use of buildings and G1 Housing design set the requirements to accessibility in both public buildings and private homes.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-04-01 15:52:12
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Land Use and Building Act (132/1999)
                                                    [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/1999/en19990132.pdf
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Land Use and Building Decree (895/1999)
                                                    [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/1999/en19990895.pdf; Finnish Building Code
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Finnish Building Code
                                                    [url] => http://www.ym.fi/en-us/Land_use_and_building/Legislation_and_instructions/The_National_Building_Code_of_Finland
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [21] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => C. Accessibility
                                    [theme_title] => C3. ICT and Web accessibility
                                    [theme_slug] => c3-ict-and-web-accessibility
                                    [theme_id] => 21
                                    [contents] => Finland does not have ICT and web accessibility legislation. There are however guidelines for designing web services in the public administration. There are recommendations for producing online services. Usability and accessibility of the services are particularly taken into account. The guidelines were first published in June 2005 and they have been updated in October 2012.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-12-03 10:42:52
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => JHS 129 – guidelines
                                                    [url] => http://www.jhs-suositukset.fi/web/guest/jhs/recommendations/129
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Finland  MeAC country report
                                                    [url] => http://www.eaccessibility-progress.eu/country-profiles/finland/
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [23] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => D. Independent living
                                    [theme_title] => D1. Choice of living arrangements
                                    [theme_slug] => d1-choice-of-living-arrangements
                                    [theme_id] => 23
                                    [contents] => Finland has signed the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, which obliges the states to ensure that people with disabilities can choose their place and type of residence as well as whom they want to live with on an equal basis with others. There is no legislation, which would determine living arrangements of persons with disabilities, there is only guidance.
                                    [update_date] => 2014-05-01 12:46:37
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Individual Housing for Persons with Disabilities (Report of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, Finland, in Finnish)
                                                    [url] => http://pre20090115.stm.fi/vk1202213422750/passthru.pdf
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Amendments of the Act on Home Municipality (1377/2010)
                                                    [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/alkup/2010/20101377
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [24] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => D. Independent living
                                    [theme_title] => D2. De-institutionalisation
                                    [theme_slug] => d2-de-institutionalisation
                                    [theme_id] => 24
                                    [contents] => The Government of Finland made the first principle decision (2010) of the programme, according to which the number of people with ID living in institutions should be diminished from 2000 to 500 people within the next five years (during the years 2010 - 2015). This process got its confirmation in 2012, when the Government of Finland made the second principle decision (2012) to close down all the institutions, for the people with intellectual disability (ID). There are approximately 40,000 people with intellectual disability in Finland. About 1,480 of these people lived in institutions at the end of 2012. The aim is that by 2020 no one lives in institutions. De-institutionalisation is especially targeted to people with intellectual disabilities. People with other kind of disabilities rarely live in institutions and for example the statistics and indicator bank SOTKAnet does not separate any other disability groups living in institutions. The government resolution on housing of the intellectually disabled (21.1.2010) sets goals for housing programme for intellectually disabled persons in 2010-2015. These goals are:
  1. To manage a quick, but systematic and controlled decrease in the amount of places of residence in institutions.
  2. To produce approximately 1,500 apartments for intellectually disabled people moving out of institutions and 2,100 apartments for adult intellectually disabled people moving away from their childhood homes
  3. All of this adds up to 3,600 apartments for people with intellectual disabilities. The plan is to produce 600 apartments per year for six years.

The National plan on developing community living arrangements (8 November 2012) sets as a national goal that by 2016 there is a maximum of 500 people living in institutions. The existing institutions work together with municipalities to produce a plan on replacing institutional care by the end of 2012. [update_date] => 2016-06-09 11:44:56 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National plan on developing community living arrangements [url] => http://www.stm.fi/c/document_library/get_file?folderId=5065240&name=DLFE-24202.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Government resolution on organising housing for persons with intellectual disabilities of 21 Janiary 2010 [url] => http://www.ymparisto.fi/download.asp?contentid=114614&lan=fi ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Government of Finland Resolution on securing individual housing and services for persons with intellectual disabilities 2012 [url] => http://www.stm.fi/c/document_library/get_file?folderId=5197397&name=DLFE-24004.pdf ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => VAMPO Monitoring Report II [url] => https://www.julkari.fi/handle/10024/116678 ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Statistics and indicator bank SOTKAnet, service of the National Institute for Health and Welfare [url] => https://www.thl.fi/en/web/mental-health ) ) ) [25] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D3. Quality of social services [theme_slug] => d3-quality-of-social-services [theme_id] => 25 [contents] => There are no Acts in Finland that would oblige certain quality standards of social services of people with disabilities, but the main steering and guidance based acts on this issue are the Social Welfare Act (710/1982), the Services and Assistance for the Disabled Act (380/1987) and the Act on Special Care for the Mentally Handicapped (519/1977). [update_date] => 2012-12-03 10:50:42 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Social Welfare Act (710/1982) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/1982/en19820710.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Services and Assistance for the Disabled Act (380/1987) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/1987/19870380 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on Special Care for the Mentally Handicapped (519/1977) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/1977/19770519 ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Guidance from the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health [url] => http://www.sosiaaliportti.fi/File/0bb63847-0373-4d36-8c28-1bfe4a1d3287/asumispalveluiden+laatusuositus.pdf ) ) ) [26] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D4. Provision of assistive devices at home [theme_slug] => d4-provision-of-assistive-devices-at-home [theme_id] => 26 [contents] => Assistive equipment and adaptations are included in public service for people with disabilities. According to the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health ‘…assistive devices are available from health centers or by referral from the assistive device units of health care districts. Assistive device services include instruction on use, renewal and maintenance. The services are free of charge. Assistive devices for use to help with social life and recreation are also available as a disability service from social welfare departments.’ Also ‘…people with severe disabilities are reimbursed for renovations made to their home and for devices installed in the home, as well as for the costs of acquiring devices and equipment.’ Assistive devices are provided by local authorities. This service is based on the Services and Assistance for the Disabled Act and the Act on housing condition improvement of special groups. [update_date] => 2012-12-03 10:51:38 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Services and Assistance for the Disabled Act [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/1987/19870380 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on housing condition improvement of special groups [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/2004/20041281 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Ministry of Social Affairs and Health – Services for People with Disabilities [url] => http://www.stm.fi/en/social_and_health_services/disability_services ) ) ) [27] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D5. Availability of personal assistance schemes [theme_slug] => d5-availability-of-personal-assistance-schemes [theme_id] => 27 [contents] => From 1 September 2009 an amendment to the Disability Service Act gave a subjective right to have a personal assistant to all disabled people, including people with an intellectual disability. This legislative change has involved a budgetary law amendment to the Law on Services for Disabled People. It introduced rights to assistance for domestic, social, educational and employment purposes, including a right to 30 hours per month to support recreation and social interaction. The law also underlines the importance of involving the person in the assessment of need. The Bill was drafted through collaboration between the Minister of Health and Social Services and the Finnish Disability Forum. The change also offers a broader choice of services, including personal assistance under persons own control. [update_date] => 2012-12-03 10:52:26 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Services and Assistance for the Disabled Act (380/1987) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/1987/19870380 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Personal assistance under persons own control (in Finnish), Työnantajamalli [url] => http://www.sosiaaliportti.fi/fi-FI/vammaispalvelujen-kasikirja/itsenaisen-elaman-tuki/henkilokohtainen-apu/avun-jarjestamistavat/tyonantajamalli/ ) ) ) [28] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D6. Income maintenance [theme_slug] => d6-income-maintenance [theme_id] => 28 [contents] => The disability pension is available to eligible disabled people. The criterion for receiving the pension is an incapacity to work. Persons who have a permanent mobility disability or blindness always receive the full amount of this pension. The disability allowance is an alternative to the disability pension and is tax free. It is divided into three levels based on the level of disability. The legislative basis for the disability pension is included in the National Pensions Act (568/2007). The maximum of the national pension is currently EUR 628.85 per month (for the person living alone) and EUR 557.79 per month (for persons living in a relationship). Disabled people may also receive earnings related pension regarding employment history. National pension and work pension are combined if work pension does not exceed the maximum amount, which is EUR 55 per month combining both pension sources. In addition, it is possible to receive other allowances, such as housing allowance, meals allowance, disability allowance or pensioners’ care allowance. People in rehabilitation programs receive rehabilitation benefit instead of disability pension. [update_date] => 2017-06-07 17:03:28 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Pensions Act (568/2007) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/2007/20070568 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Disability pension and rehabilitation subsidy (Kela) [url] => http://www.kela.fi/web/en/disability-pension-and-rehabilitation-subsidy ) ) ) [29] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D7. Additional costs [theme_slug] => d7-additional-costs [theme_id] => 29 [contents] => According to the Services and Assistance for the Disabled Act, extra costs will be paid when a disability causes a need for special clothing and special diet. [update_date] => 2012-12-03 10:56:10 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Services and Assistance for the Disabled Act (380/1987) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/1987/19870380 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Disabillity benefits available from The Social Insurance Institution in Finland [url] => http://www.kela.fi/in/internet/english.nsf/NET/130608122240HS?OpenDocument ) ) ) [30] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D8. Retirement income [theme_slug] => d8-retirement-income [theme_id] => 30 [contents] => National pension is a basic income for persons who are entitled only to a very small earnings-related pension or to none at all. The National pension is paid by the Social Insurance Institution. National and earnings-related pensions systems do not exclude disabled persons, if they fulfill the criteria. Earnings-related pension rights are accrued through employment and self-employment. There are several earnings-related pension providers. To qualify for a national pension, any other pension or benefits received may not exceed a certain limit. The age limits for the disability pension is 16-64 years and after that the disability pension is automatically converted into an old-age pension. The Act on Guarantee Pensions came into effect on 1 March 2011, which is paid to persons whose other retirement incomes are under the full guarantee pension. The pension reform, which was finally agreed on 20 November 2015, came into effect in the beginning of 2017. The reform holds some minor changes, e.g. the pension age limit will gradually increase to the age of 65. [update_date] => 2017-05-16 14:43:59 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Social Insurance Institution - Pensions [url] => http://www.kela.fi/in/internet/english.nsf/NET/081101151613EH?OpenDocument ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Pensions Act (568/2007) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/alkup/2007/20070569 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on Earnings-related pensions (395/1961) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/alkup/1961/19610395 ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on Guarantee Pensions (703/2010) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/2010/20100703 ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Agreement on earnings-related pension for the year 2017 [url] => http://www.elakeuudistus.fi/media/linkkitiedostot/sopimus-vuoden-2017-tyoelakeuudistukseksi.pdf ) ) ) [32] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E1. Special schools [theme_slug] => e1-special-schools [theme_id] => 32 [contents] => According to the Basic Education Act and its amendments on special education, municipal educational authorities guarantee the nearest place of school. It does not matter if a pupil has a disability or not. However, parents have a right to choose another school, if they want. New amendments on special education include a range of types of educational support, where full-time special education is the strongest measure. This means that a special education usually is arranged in mainstream schools and separate special schools are decreasing. Pupils needing special support at school are receiving it both in general and special education. Over half of these students are fully or partially integrated into general education groups. [update_date] => 2012-12-03 10:59:51 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Basic Education Act (628/1998) and amendments up to 1136/2010 (the newest translation) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/1998/en19980628.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Statistics Finland on special support in schools 2011 [url] => http://www.stat.fi/til/erop/2011/erop_2011_2012-06-12_tie_001_en.html ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Special education strategy [url] => http://www.minedu.fi/export/sites/default/OPM/Julkaisut/2007/liitteet/tr47.pdf ) ) ) [33] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E2. Mainstream schools [theme_slug] => e2-mainstream-schools [theme_id] => 33 [contents] => The school system itself is not subjective to the Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014). Basic Education Act (628/1998) has been amended (Amendment 642/2010) to provide support to disabled pupils. A pupil who has temporarily fallen behind with their studies or otherwise needs short-term support in learning shall be entitled to remedial teaching (Section 16). A pupil who has difficulties in learning or in going to school shall be entitled to part-time special-needs education. Section 16a on Enhanced support (Amendment 642/2010) provides for a learning plan devised for him or her, in collaboration with the pupil, the parent, carer or, where necessary, some other legal representative of the pupil. Enhanced support shall be determined multi-professionally, based on a pedagogical assessment of pupil welfare (Section 31a (1) and (2)). The education provider shall give a written account of the provision of special-needs support, to be reviewed at least by the second year class and before transfer to the seventh year class. The decision on special needs support shall determine the pupil's primary teaching group, possible interpretation and assistant services and other services where needed, such as exceptional teaching arrangements referred to above. Before a decision on special needs support is made, the education provider should also seek out written reports on the pupil’s progress. [update_date] => 2016-04-01 16:49:54 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/alkup/2014/20141325#Pidp810544 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Basic Education Act (628/1998) and amendments up to 1136/2010: [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/1998/en19980628.pdf ) ) ) [34] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E3. Sign language and Braille in school [theme_slug] => e3-sign-language-and-braille-in-school [theme_id] => 34 [contents] => Deaf and deaf-blind persons have the right to education in sign-language. This kind of teaching is organised in special classes or units of mainstream schools (see Basic Education Act 628/1998). Special attention is focused on culturally sensitive instruction. [update_date] => 2012-12-03 11:01:17 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Basic Education Act (628/1998) (see especially § 10 (teaching language) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/1998/en19980628.pdf ) ) ) [35] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E4. Vocational training [theme_slug] => e4-vocational-training [theme_id] => 35 [contents] => Vocational training providers are subject to the Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014). The fifth section of the law requires that 'a person commissioning work or arranging training shall where necessary take any reasonable steps to help a person with disabilities to gain access to work or training, to cope at work and to advance in their career' (Non-Discrimination Act 21/2004). In determining what constitutes 'reasonable' the law directs attention to the costs of the measures that need to be taken, to the financial position of the training provider and to availability of other funds. Vocational education and training are mainly the responsibility of the Ministry of Education. Key legislation consists of the Vocational Education and Training Act (630/1998), the Vocational Adult Education Act (631/1998) and the Act on the Financing of the Provision of Education and Culture (1705/2007). Vocational special education is stated in the Vocational Education and Training Act (630/1998) and it is mostly arranged in mainstream vocational schools with special curricula. There are also special schools for vocational education. [update_date] => 2016-04-01 17:08:56 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Vocational Education and Training Act [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/1998/19980630 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014), amended [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/kaannokset/2014/en20141325.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Non-Discrimination Act (21/2004) - old version [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/kaannokset/2004/en20040021.pdf ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Vocational Adult Education Act (631/1998) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/1998/19980631?search%5Btype%5D=pika&search%5Bpika%5D=1998%2F631 ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Ministry of Education and Culture, Finnish acts and decrees concerning education [url] => http://www.minedu.fi/OPM/Koulutus/koulutuspolitiikka/lait_ja_ohjeet/?lang=en ) ) ) [36] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E5. Higher education [theme_slug] => e5-higher-education [theme_id] => 36 [contents] => Universities are subject to the Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014) as much as vocational training providers. The word 'koulutus' translates both to 'training' and 'education', so they are not separated in the Non-Discrimination Act. Also the Constitution of Finland (731/1999) states in its sixth section that everyone is equal before the law. The 16th section set that the 'public authorities shall, as provided in more detail by an Act, guarantee for everyone equal opportunity to receive other educational services in accordance with their ability and special needs, as well as the opportunity to develop themselves without being prevented by economic hardship' (Finnish law 731/1999). Universities may make special arrangements for entrance examinations, campus accessibility and learning support, but they are not obliged to provide any special educational support. There are, however, examples of such support in some institutions. Financial aid is available to all students in financial difficulty and rehabilitation allowances are payable to young disabled people in education but there is no specific, separate system of financial support for disabled students. There is not any legislation for physical arrangements at universities for disabled students, but there is a rehabilitation allowance for disabled students paid by the Social Insurance Institution, because this allowance helps the pathway to employment. This is stated in the Act on Rehabilitation and Rehabilitation Financing Benefits. [update_date] => 2016-04-01 17:17:49 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on Rehabilitation and Rehabilitation Financing Benefits (566/2005) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/2005/20050566 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Constitution of Finland [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/1999/en19990731.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/kaannokset/2014/en20141325.pdf ) ) ) [38] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F1. Non-discrimination in employment [theme_slug] => f1-non-discrimination-in-employment [theme_id] => 38 [contents] => According to the Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014), equality, work or training conditions must be arranged to help a person with disabilities 'to gain access to work or training, to cope at work and to advance in their career'. According to a report from the Finnish Institute for Occupational Health the main adaptations to workplaces are working times, ergonomic adaptations and the employee's own work planning. Since 2013 people with disabilities, who receive disability pension, have right to use the services of employment and economic office because of the new Act on public employment and business service (916/2012). Its aim is to promote equality (Section 6) and non-discrimination (Section 7) in working-life as mentioned in Non-Discrimination Act (Section 6(1). [update_date] => 2016-04-01 17:24:47 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/kaannokset/2014/en20141325.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Report of the Finnish Institute for Occupational Health [url] => http://www.ttl.fi/fi/ergonomia/esteeton_tyoelama/Documents/TOS%20LoppuraporttiIsbn.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on public employment and business service (916/2012) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/2012/20120916?search%5Btype%5D=pika&search%5Bpika5D=laki%20julkisesta%20ty%B6voimapalvelu%2A ) ) ) [39] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F2. Public employment services [theme_slug] => f2-public-employment-services [theme_id] => 39 [contents] => The Act of Vocational Rehabilitation (189/2001) and the Social Welfare Act (710/1982) include elements that support disabled persons to get jobs, although the focus is on the unemployed population in general. The main idea is to activate unemployed persons at the municipal level. Municipalities can organise activation activities themselves or they can buy this function from outside organisations. Most municipalities have established foundations with enterprises and non - governmental organisations to actualise this obligation. Public employment services have some services allocated to disabled people. These include for example vocational rehabilitation and wage subsidies. The report on disability and employment services points out that the services are multifaceted and individually tailored and therefore also rather variable. The Finnish term used (vajaakuntoinen) does not simply mean disabled but includes also other people, for example temporarily not fully fit for work. The question of who belongs to these groups is also not always fully clear.

The Finnish special problem had been the increasing numbers of disability pensioners. Approximately 25,000 people retire on a disability pension every year. A new way to hold these people in workforce is to develop special services to them. E.g the operational programme to reintroduce people with partial work ability into to the labour force has produced a concept for allowing people with partial work ability to continue working or to find employment. The concept’s objective is to ensure a seamless chain of services for people with partial work ability that enables to continue working or to find employment. Responsible for adopting the tools are either employer or the local Employment and Economic Development Office. Because of this programme Finland has to make changes in national legislation. [update_date] => 2014-05-01 12:48:56 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => On disability and employment services (in Finnish): Vajaakuntoinen TE-toimiston asiakkaana [url] => http://www.tem.fi/files/30808/TEM_31_2011_netti.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act of Vocational Rehabilitation (189/2001) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/kokoelma/2001/20010027.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Social Welfare Act (710/1982) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/1982/en19820710.pdf ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Partial ablility to work (Osatyökykyiset työssä, only in Finnish) [url] => http://www.stm.fi/julkaisut/nayta/-/_julkaisu/1861826#fi ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Operational programme with the objective of promoting the employment and continuation at work of people with partial work ability [url] => http://www.stim.fi/en/ministry/strategies_and_programmes/people_with_partial_work_ability ) ) ) [40] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F3. Workplace adaptations [theme_slug] => f3-workplace-adaptations [theme_id] => 40 [contents] => Through a Government Decree on Benefits Related to Public Employment Service (1346/2002) the employer has the right to apply for a benefit for arranging the working conditions to enable an employment of a disabled person. Adaptations can cover necessary arrangements and new equipment to reduce the disadvantage in working conditions or hiring another employee to assist the disabled employee. Workplace adaptations are always means-tested. The benefit is limited to 4,000 euros per person regarding adaptations and 20 euros per hour for maximum 18 months in a case of a personal employed assistant. The Social Insurance Institution of Finland provides assistive devices needed to enable employment. Such devices include for example video magnifiers, Braille displays or other computer equipment. The main adaptations at workplaces concern working times, ergonomics and the employee’s own work planning. The employee receives subsidies for these adaptations. An employer employing a disabled employee could also get wage subsidies or other support in organizing the work. Assistive devices for work are available from The Social Insurance Institute of Finland. [update_date] => 2016-04-01 17:28:25 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Government Decree on Benefits Related to Public Employment Service (1346/2002) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/2002/20021346 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Social Insurance Institute of Finland [url] => http://www.kela.fi/in/internet/english.nsf/NET/180808124022HS ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Report of the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health [url] => http://www.ttl.fi/fi/ergonomia/esteeton_tyoelama/Documents/TOS%20LoppuraporttiIsbn.pdf ) ) ) [41] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F4. Financial incentives [theme_slug] => f4-financial-incentives [theme_id] => 41 [contents] => The employers employing a person with disabilities are entitled to different benefits also in the open labour market. The most common benefits are an employment subsidy and a subsidy for arrangement of the working conditions. Subsidy can also be granted for social enterprises, which support the employment of the disabled people. The employment subsidy is regulated by the Act on Public Employment and Enterprise Services (916/2012), which also regulates the subsidy for the arrangement of working conditions. [update_date] => 2017-07-21 12:55:22 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on the Public Employment and Enterprise Services (916/2012) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/2012/20120916 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Guide to the employer for hiring a disabled or partially fit to work person [url] => http://yhdenvertaisuus-fi-bin.directo.fi/@Bin/7175229e9494afc2319f883fb46c1b32/1450871813/application/pdf/173585/Vammoista%20viis%20final%20FI.pdf ) ) ) [43] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G1. Official research [theme_slug] => g1-official-research [theme_id] => 43 [contents] => There is no institution nor department especially responsible for research on disability equality or the collection of relevant data and statistics. The National Disability Policy (VAMPO) includes a key commitment that 'disability research shall be reinforced, the information base improved, and diversified high-quality methods developed in support of disability policy and monitoring'. The social insurance fund (Kela) publishes statistics on disability benefits and services (recipients etc.). The National Institute for Health and Welfare publishes statistics on institutional care and housing. At the Åbo Akademi University there is an Institute for Human Rights that conducts research on disability equality. The first Finnish disability research professorship was established with the support of disability organizations at the University of Helsinki (in the Faculty of Social Sciences. Disability research is part of the subject of social and public policy). The professor in disability research started his work at the beginning of August 2013. The term of office is 5 years (2013-2017). According to the professor in disability research the most important objective would be the research of social inclusion and well-being of people with disabilities. [update_date] => 2016-04-01 17:41:27 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Finland's Disability Policy Programme (VAMPO) [url] => https://www.julkari.fi/handle/10024/112497 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Social insurance fund statistics (Kela) [url] => http://www.stat.fi/til/vamet/index_en.html ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Institute for Health and Welfare (care statistics) [url] => http://www.stat.fi/tup/vl2010/index_en.html ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Institute for Human Rights [url] => http://www.abo.fi/institution/en/humanrights ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The thoughts and ideas of the professor in disability research [url] => http://www.kuntoutusportti.fi/portal/fi/ajankohtaista?area=4&id=711 ) [5] => stdClass Object ( [title] => University of Helsinki (Professor professor of disability studies Simo Vehmas), Yhteiskuntatieteellinen vammaistutkimus (video, in FI) [url] => http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l_6XCj7knxE&feature=c4-overview&list=UUfyixY7KHwkorb7M1dp-SdA ) ) ) [44] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G2. Census data [theme_slug] => g2-census-data [theme_id] => 44 [contents] => There is a national census data but disabled people are not identified within it (the most recent in 2010). The number of people who use disability services is recorded in official statistics. Statistics on disability benefits are provided by The Social Insurance Institution of Finland. [update_date] => 2012-12-03 11:18:51 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Statistics Finland - Census [url] => http://tilastokeskus.fi/til/shlaitasup/index_en.html ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Social Insurance Institution of Finland on statistics on disability benefits [url] => http://www.kela.fi/in/internet/english.nsf/NET/151008131503AS?OpenDocument ) ) ) [45] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G3. Labour Force Survey [theme_slug] => g3-labour-force-survey [theme_id] => 45 [contents] => There is Finnish Labour Survey by The Employment Office. It distinguishes people with partial work incapacity. The European Labour Force Survey ad hoc module in 2002 and 2012 included Finnish disabled people. [update_date] => 2016-04-01 17:42:59 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Statistics Finland - About statistics - Labour force survey [url] => http://www.stat.fi/meta/til/tyti_en.html ) ) ) [46] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G4. Disability equality indicators [theme_slug] => g4-disability-equality-indicators [theme_id] => 46 [contents] => There are no specific disability equality indicators available. [update_date] => 2012-12-03 11:23:41 [links] => Array ( ) ) [48] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H1. Awareness raising programs [theme_slug] => h1-awareness-raising-programs [theme_id] => 48 [contents] => Assistentti-info is a nationwide network of personal assistance and information services, which produces educational materials. It is an umbrella organisation and network, which consists of civil society associations and local and nationwide public service organisations. The network is financed by the Finnish Slot Machine Association that is controlled by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health. The network’s main focus is on developing personal assistance. The Threshold Association runs the network and its members are service providers, disability organisations and foundations. Assistentti-info is now controlled by disabled people and provides a national co-ordinating and information function, as well as raising awareness about personal assistance and independent living. Advice and legal support can also be provided to personal assistance users. The National Council of Disability (Valtakunnallinen vammaisneuvosto – VANE) is a governmental cooperative body for the development of social and public policy considering living conditions and equality of disabled people. In addition, the Association for People with Physical Disabilities (Invalidiliitto) organizes a web portal of accessibility (Esteetön.fi), which provides information, education and social campaigns. [update_date] => 2017-05-16 14:47:17 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Assistentti-info [url] => http://www.assistentti.info/fi/ ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on the National Council of Disability (2009/1648) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/alkup/2009/20091648 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Valtakunnallinen vammaisneuvosto – VANE [url] => http://www.vane.to/ ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Esteetön.fi (a web portal of accessibility) [url] => http://www.esteeton.fi/portal/ ) ) ) [49] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H2. Training for teachers [theme_slug] => h2-training-for-teachers [theme_id] => 49 [contents] => In Finland inclusive teacher training is not organised in disability-oriented streams. The aim is to provide to teachers with a range of knowledge and skills that they can apply in various settings and situations to arrange inclusive educational possibilities. This training is not focused on disability awareness, but on the opportunities for the participation of students with special needs. The training in university education science program includes minimum 35 credits and maximum 50 credits, as defined by the Act on university degree on education or teacher qualifications (1995/576) in the section 14. [update_date] => 2017-05-16 16:45:37 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => European Agency - country information [url] => http://www.european-agency.org/country-information/finland/national-overview/teacher-training-basic-and-specialist-teacher-training ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on university degree on education or teacher qualifications (1995/576) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/alkup/1995/19950576 ) ) ) [50] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H3. Training for lawyers [theme_slug] => h3-training-for-lawyers [theme_id] => 50 [contents] => There is no public information available on whether disability awareness / equality issues are part of lawyers’ training, or whether disabled people are involved in training. In legal science studies, after training in the court of justice, practical training is voluntary. [update_date] => 2012-12-03 11:38:40 [links] => Array ( ) ) [51] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H4. Training for doctors [theme_slug] => h4-training-for-doctors [theme_id] => 51 [contents] => There is no public information available on whether disability awareness / equality issues are part of doctors’ training, or whether disabled people are involved in training. The degree of licence of medicine includes a mandatory training from 4 to 16 weeks in clinical methods (at the University of Oulu). [update_date] => 2012-12-03 11:39:27 [links] => Array ( ) ) [52] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H5. Training for engineers [theme_slug] => h5-training-for-engineers [theme_id] => 52 [contents] => The Finnish Design for All (DfA) network is a member of the European Design for All eAccessibility Network EDeAN. It is an umbrella organisation and network, which has 39 members, including research institutions, universities and user organisations. Individual engineers active in this network usually work with the built environment and in communications. Engineers and graduate engineers have a mandatory job training, which is focused on the special field of technology that a student is studying (Lappeenranta University of Technology). [update_date] => 2012-12-03 11:40:18 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Finnish Design for All Network [url] => http://dfasuomi.stakes.fi/EN/index.htm ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Job training of engineers at Lappeenranta University of Technology [url] => http://www.lut.fi/fi/technology/studies/Sivut/training.aspx ) ) ) [53] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H6. International development aid [theme_slug] => h6-international-development-aid [theme_id] => 53 [contents] => Disability Partnership Finland (DPF) (formerly FIDIDA, Finnish Disabled People’s International Development Association) is a registered non-governmental organisation founded in 1989. DPF has had the status of a partnership organisation of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland since 2010. This status is helping to involve DPF in official development policy programmes between the North and the South. DPF includes nine Finnish disabled people’s organisations. Its basic aims are to promote the human rights of disabled people concerning disability and development co-operation. DPF activities are to gather and distribute information, provide training on disability and development, and to lobby for the mainstreaming of disability issues in national and international development co-operation. [update_date] => 2017-05-16 14:50:27 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Disability Partnership Finland (Vammaiskumppanuus) [url] => http://www.vammaiskumppanuus.fi/fidida/ ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => FIDIDA, Partnership organisation of Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland [url] => http://formin.finland.fi/public/default.aspx?contentId=193970&nodeId=15145&contentlan=1&culture=fi-FI ) ) ) ) ) ) )