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Hungary

A. UN Convention status

A1. Ratification or conclusion of the UN Convention

Hungary signed the Convention on 30 March 2007. Following the ratification by Law 92 of 2007, the UN Convention came into force in Hungary on 3 May 2008 by decision 22/2008.(V.9) of the Minister of Foreign Affairs.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2017-06-19

A2. Ratification or accession to the Optional Protocol

Hungary was the first Member state to sign and ratify both the Convention and the Protocol. Hungary signed the Protocol on 30 March 2007 and ratified on 20 July 2007 by Law 92 of 2007. The Optional Protocol came into force in Hungary on 3 May 2008 by decision 22/2008.(V.9) of the Minister of Foreign Affairs.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2017-06-19

A3. Declarations, Reservations and Objections

Hungary registered no declarations, reservations and objections to the UNCRPD.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2017-06-19

A4. Comprehensive review

A comprehensive review of existing legislation was undertaken by the National Disability Council in preparation for the implementation of the UN Convention.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2017-06-19

A5. Focal point

Hungary’s focal point for the UN CRPD is the Ministry of Human Resources. The Office of the Secretary of State for Social Inclusion is responsible for Disability affairs, including UN CRPD. The fundamental goal of the Office of the Secretary of State for Social Inclusion is that individuals and groups in disadvantaged positions should have access to their fair share of the expanding opportunities available. The essence of the new conception is its composite nature, which means that qualitative improvements in disadvantaged areas can only be seen if educational, social, healthcare and employment conditions are improved simultaneously.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2017-06-19

A6. Coordination mechanism

The National Council on Disability Affairs (NCD) was designated by the government as the independent mechanism in relation to the UNCRPD. Beyond NCD, Hungary has not established any other formal co-ordination mechanism for the UNCRPD. The mandate of the NCD members is regulated by Government decision 1330/2013.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2017-09-27

A7. Independent mechanism

According to Government Decree 1065/2008, the National Council on Disability Affairs (NCD) was designated by the government as the independent mechanism in relation to the UNCRPD. The Council is an advisory agency to the government and reviews policies pertaining to persons with disabilities. Disabled people’s organisations are represented.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2017-06-19

A8. Official reporting

Hungary’s initial state report was due in June 2010 and submitted in October 2010. It was published in its final version in 2011.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2017-06-19

A9. Shadow reporting

The Hungarian Civil Caucus was established in 2010 by civil disability organisations to monitor the implementation of the Convention. Nine NGOs and the Ombudsman are the members of the Caucus. The Hungarian Disability Caucus, published a Shadow Report on the UN Convention on 10 August 2010, which is available on various NGO websites but not submitted to the UN database.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2017-06-19

B. General legal framework

B1. Anti-discrimination legislation

The anti-discrimination framework in general protects persons with disability. The Fundamental Law (new Constitution) contains a general anti-discrimination clause (Article XV.) and the Equal Treatment Act (Law 125 of 2003) provides detailed anti-discrimination rules. Furthermore, the Equal Opportunities Act (Act 26 of 1998) also contains specific provisions on equal treatment of persons with disability. The new Labour Code (Act 1 of 2012) contains a provision on reasonable accommodation (article 51.5): in the employment of persons with disabilities appropriate steps shall be taken to ensure that reasonable accommodation is provided. There are no specific provisions on disabled women and children. The Equal Treatment Act contains detailed rules on definitions, remedies and legal procedures. There are specific prohibitions on several fields, such as employment, housing, health care etc.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2017-06-20

B2. Recognition of legal capacity

The right of persons with disability to enter into legal commitments are based on their possibility to exercise their rights, i.e. on their legal status determined by the legal capacity (including both capacity to have rights and capacity to act). According to Act 5 of 2013 on the Civil Code, persons may be under plenary and partial guardianship, and their right is limited to enter into legal commitments. Article 2:38 contains rules on supported decision-making.

According to Article 21 of the new Labour Code, people under partial guardianship are allowed to conclude a labour contract, which is a legal commitment. Persons under guardianship may conclude employment relationships only for jobs which they are capable to handle on a stable and continuous basis in the light of their medical condition (article 212 of the Labour Code). Legal acts on behalf of persons under guardianship shall be made by the legal representatives (article 21. 5 of the Labour Code).

Links

Update date: Sun, 2017-08-20

B3. Accessibility of voting and elections

Every adult Hungarian citizen shall have the right to be a voter as well as a candidate in the elections of Members of Parliament, local representatives and mayors, and of members of the European Parliament. A person disenfranchised by a court for committing an offence or due to his or her limited mental capacity shall have no suffrage (Fundamental Law, article 23). Article 13/A of Act 36 of 2013 on election procedure contains detailed procedural provisions on the limitation of the right to vote, implementing Article XXIII. (6) of the Basic Law:

  1. The court must settle the issue of excluding from the right to vote in the sentence on guardianship restricting or excluding legal capacity.
  2. The court shall exclude the adult person from the right to vote, if his/her ability to act:
    • is permanently and remarkably diminished by psychical condition, mental health problem or addiction; or
    • is missing due to his/her psychical condition or mental disability.
  3. If the court does not deprive the person with limited or without legal capacity of the right to vote, the person under guardianship shall exercise personally his/her right to vote and able to make valid legal acts regarding the exercise of this right.
  4. The person who is legally authorised to initiate a court proceeding aiming at guardianship of another person, may also ask the court to deprive this adult person’s right to vote irrespective of the conditions mentioned in Subsection (1) above.

Links

Update date: Sun, 2017-08-20

B4. Official recognition of sign language

Act 125 of 2009 on Hungarian sign language is a new law, which defines the community of hearing impaired persons as members of a linguistic minority by acknowledging Hungarian sign language. The Act defines the deaf and deafblind person’s right to learn and use special communication systems. In the future, deaf and deafblind persons will be able to communicate at offices with the help of sign language interpreters. From 2017, education in Hungarian sign language will be obligatory for deaf children in special schools, while in the integrated schools they will become eligible even if only one parent of the child chooses it. From 2017 it will be obligatory to organise bilingual education in deaf children’s schools for the children who have chosen it. The Act also declares that kindergartens, equivalent pre-schools and other schools educating a child living with disability shall be chosen by the parent on the basis of the information provided by the expert and rehabilitation committee. The expert and rehabilitation committee is regulated by the Public Education Act.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2017-09-13

B5. National disability strategy and action plan

The Act 26 of 1998 on ensuring equal opportunities for persons with disabilities provides that the Parliament and the government must create a mid-term National Disability Programme (Országos Fogyatékosügyi Program), and on that basis, a short-term action plan. The Parliament passed a Resolution in 2006 (No. 10/2006) on the new National Disability Programme for the period of 2007-2013. Government Decree No. 1062/2007 contained the midterm action plan for the implementation of the National Disability Programme during 2007–2010. After the elections in May 2010, the National Disability Council was re-established only in November 2011. After consultation with the National Disability Council, Government Decree No. 1056/2012 contains the action plan for implementation of the National Disability Programme in the years 2012–2013 (after the 2007-2010 action plan). The Parliament passed the new National Disability Programme (2015-2025) on 31 March 2015 (Decision of Parliament No. 15/2015). The government passed an Action Plan (Government Decision No. 1653/2015) for 2015-2018 to implement the National Disability Programme.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2017-06-20

C. Accessibility

C1. Transport accessibility

Transport providers are required by the Equal Opportunities Act (26 of 1998) to provide accessibility for disabled passengers, and this applies to all forms of public transport (rail, buses). The deadlines on accessibility of transport systems were deleted from the Act by an amendment in 2013 (Act 62 of 2013).

The Equal Treatment Act (125 of 2003) shall by applied regarding the legal disputes on accessibility. The Equal Treatment Authority and the courts may sanction breaching of obligations in the Equal Opportunities Act. The Advisory Body of the Equal Treatment Authority interpreted in its opinion the legal provisions on accessibility.

The accessibility of public transport vehicle is regulated by Decree 6/1990 (12 April) of the Ministry of Transport, Communications and Energy, on the technical requirements for the operation of road vehicles. The scope of the Decree covers all vehicles on public roads, including cars, buses, trolley buses, motorbikes etc. It contains very basic obligations on special places for disabled persons.

In 2009, the Parliamentary Commissioner for Civil Rights (Állampolgári Jogok Országgyûlési Biztosának Irodája, OBH-ÁJOB) launched an investigation about the conditions of public transport, including rail transport, in the capital and the country.
The results showed:

  • Railcars: 13% accessible, 6% partly accessible, 81% not accessible;
  • Passenger cars: 3% accessible, 97% not accessible;
  • Passenger facilities: 4.5% of the buildings are accessible, 4.7% have disabled toilet, 0.5% have tactile warning facilities.

Links

Update date: Sun, 2017-08-20

C2. Built environment accessibility

Buildings, in which public services are provided, are required by the Equal Opportunities Act (26 of 1998) to be accessible to disabled people. This applies to all buildings open to the public, private buildings, new and old buildings as well. However, buildings of public administration and customer services are exempted from this obligation until 2013. The Equal Treatment Act (125 of 2003) shall be applied for the legal procedures on breaching this obligation. The Equal Treatment Authority and the courts may sanction the omission of accessibility. The Advisory Body of the Equal Treatment Authority interprets the legal provisions on accessibility.

Links

Update date: Sun, 2017-08-20

C3. ICT and Web accessibility

ICTs and websites are not specifically mentioned by the Equal Opportunities Act (26 of 1998), however these are also required to be accessible to disabled people by the provision on accessibility of information. There is no exemption regarding ICTs and websites. The Equal Treatment Act (125 of 2003) shall be applied for the legal procedures related to breaching of this obligation. The Equal Treatment Authority and the courts may sanction the omission of accessibility. The Advisory Body of the Equal Treatment Authority interprets the legal provisions on accessibility. Government Decree No. 305/2005 regulates those websites, where information of public interest is announced. These websites must be accessible for blind persons and persons with sight impairment. The Public Foundation for Equal opportunities of Disabled People prepared a Methodology Guidance for Ensuring Accessibility, which deals with the accessibility of websites as well. Moreover, a special Recommendation for info-communication accessibility was also issued by the Public Foundation. These papers are not compulsory documents, but they provide information on technical issues concerning accessibility to buildings, of websites, communication and services. Hungary has not signed the Marrakesh Treaty.

Links

Update date: Sun, 2017-08-20

D. Independent living

D1. Choice of living arrangements

Act 26 of 1998 on the rights of people with disability and ensuring equal opportunities includes the following right: 'Persons living with disability have the right to choose a form of residence – family home, residential home, institution – corresponding to their disability and personal circumstances' (17 §).

Links

Update date: Tue, 2017-06-20

D2. De-institutionalisation

The Equal Opportunities Act prescribes that long-term institutions must be closed gradually (article 17 as amended in 2010), and 1,500 persons living with disability capable of independent living with personal help must be housed in residential homes for small communities by 31 December 2013, which will be financed by the EU Funds. The rest of the institutions not affected by the above mentioned change in 2013 will be replaced by residential homes according to a schedule defined by the government.

There is a strategy on de-institutionalisation approved by the Government on 21 July 2011 (Government Resolution 1257/2011). The strategy's time frame is 2011-2041. From January 2011 on new institutional places can only be created in community-based forms. Institutions housing more than 50 persons gradually have to be transformed into community-based services.

Links

Update date: Sun, 2017-08-20

D3. Quality of social services

Minimum standards, time frames and quality principles of social services are regulated by Act 3 of 1993 on social administration and services and by Decree 1/2000 on its enforcement (published by the Ministry of Social and Family Affairs). This legislation applies equally to state, non-state and church service providers (these three are being defined by the Act). Consequently all service providers must observe the material, personal conditions, professional specifications (e.g. preparation of professional program, right to complaint etc.) contained therein. The control is regulated by the Government Decree of 369/2013 (X.24) on the registration and control of social and child protection service providers and institutions.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2017-09-28

D4. Provision of assistive devices at home

Assistive equipment, as well as information and services, is mostly provided by NGOs. As an allowance in kind, a free medication card allows the purchase of therapeutic equipment and medicine. Other allowances of this kind are car purchase support, car conversion support, home adaptations, as well as several forms of transportation support. For all forms of assistive support, conditions of entitlement and administrative processes are rather complex. Nevertheless, extensive governmental and non-governmental information is available for those concerned.

Links

Update date: Sun, 2017-08-20

D5. Availability of personal assistance schemes

Independent living is supported essentially by three personal assistance (social) services, regulated by Act 3 of 1993 on Social Governance and Social Benefits. The promotion of independent living of disabled people is mostly realised in the framework of the so called support services. In several higher educational institutions 'student helping services' are available.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2017-08-21

D6. Income maintenance

It is Act 3 of 1993 on social administration and social services that defines cash benefits and benefits in kind available to persons who are disadvantaged for any reason, as well as to children and families. In theory, all these are also available to persons with disabilities. These concrete services, which local governments or other organizations are obliged to render are as follows:

A) Cash benefits: regular social benefit (Article 37/A); care allowance (Articles 40-44); a financial benefit for an adult providing care at home for a dependant person.

B) Social services: food service (Article 62); family support (Article 64); help in homes fitted with systems to request assistance (Article 65); supporting service (Article 65/C); day care (Article 65/F); home for persons with disabilities (Article 69); rehabilitation institution for persons with disabilities (Article 74); nursing home for persons with disabilities (temporary institution) (Article 83); residential home for persons with disabilities (Article 85/A).

Links

Update date: Sun, 2017-08-20

D7. Additional costs

Persons not entitled to disability pension are supported by other benefits. The amount of these benefits is determined by the years spent at work and the level of disability. There are dozens of benefits available. From the employment point of view one either collects disability pension or one of the following five benefits: 1) temporary benefits; 2) regular social benefits; 3) health impairment benefits; 4) disability benefits; 5) accident benefits.

Links

Update date: Sun, 2017-08-20

D8. Retirement income

Act 191 of 2011 on allowances of persons with limited capacity to work changed the former complex system of disability pensions from 1 January 2012. There are two kinds of retirement incomes after this date: rehabilitation allowance and disability allowance. Rehabilitation allowance shall be provided for those persons (for a period of maximum 3 years), whose working capacity may be rehabilitated or require continuous employment rehabilitation. Disability allowance shall be provided for those persons (for a period of maximum three years), whose rehabilitation is not recommended. The Act contains very detailed rules on eligibility criteria.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2017-06-20

E. Education

E1. Special schools

The Act on National Public Education (Act 190 of 2011) provides two choices for children with disabilities: education in special schools or in regular pre-schools and schools. The annual amount allocated by the government for the costs of education is two or three times higher in the case of a child with a disability (in both a segregated or integrated setting) than for a non-disabled child, depending on the level of disability.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2017-06-20

E2. Mainstream schools

The Equal Opportunities Act (26 of 1998) regulates extensively the whole life of people with disabilities. Regarding education and training of disabled persons, the Act declares in Article 13: (1) 'It is the right of a person living with disability to take part in early development and care corresponding to his or her condition and depending on age, to kindergarten training, school training and education and development preparation for such education, in keeping with the provisions of the Act on Public Education'; (2) 'If it is advantageous for development of the capabilities of the person living with disability - in keeping with the opinion of the expert and rehabilitation committee set up for this purpose – the person living with disability shall take part in kindergarten training and school education together with other children and pupils, in the same kindergarten group or school class.'

Links

Update date: Sun, 2017-08-20

E3. Sign language and Braille in school

According to Act 125 of 2009 on Hungarian sign language, education in Hungarian sign language will be obligatory for deaf children in special schools from 2017, while in the integrated schools they will become eligible even if only one of the child's parents chooses it. From 2017 it will be obligatory to organize bilingual education in deaf children’s schools for the children who have chosen it (article 12-13, in force from 2017).

Links

Update date: Tue, 2017-06-20

E4. Vocational training

Vocational training providers are subject to non-discrimination laws in relation to disability (Act 125 of 2003 on equal treatment). Act 187 of 2011 on National Vocational Education (article 11) contains special provisions on trainings and exams of persons with disability. Országos Képzési Jegyzék (OKJ) is a basis of free training provided by the state, where people can choose from different professions. It is open to disabled people, if the training provider (school/organisation) has an accessible environment.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2017-09-13

E5. Higher education

The National Higher Education Act (Law 204 of 2011) defines a 'student with disability' (article 108) and declares that in the event that the higher education institution stipulates an assessment examination, disabled applicants should be granted exemption and special arrangements must be made in order to take the examination. This right should also be extended to persons who were not granted such opportunities as a result of their disability in secondary education but who can in fact provide proof of their disability. The state-funded period may be prolonged to four semesters in the case of students with disabilities. Where appropriate, they should be exempted from the obligation to take certain course units, certain parts thereof or undergo assessment. If necessary, such students shall be exempted from a language examination or a part of it, or the related requirements of such language examinations. Disabled students should be given more time to prepare for examinations, and be afforded the opportunity to use aids during written tests (typewriter, computer, etc.), or if necessary, to have a written test instead of an oral test, or an oral test instead of a written one. The exemption shall exclusively be granted in the context of the condition justifying such exemption and may not result in exemption from basic academic requirements needed for professional Bachelor and Masters qualifications or vocational qualifications, which are evidenced by the certificate of higher-level vocational training. In 2002 only 271 disabled persons were studying in higher education. This number rose to 1,176 in 2008. One of the most important reasons for this growth was the 50 extra points in the process of the entrance examination, which was given to disabled persons by the Act of Higher Education. The detailed rules on access to higher education institutions and preferential treatment of disabled applicants in this procedure are regulated by the Government Decree 87/2015.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2017-09-13

F. Employment

F1. Non-discrimination in employment

Non-discrimination in occupation and employment is assured by the Equal Treatment Act (125 of 2003). The general provisions (definitions, sanctions, procedural rules) shall be applied for discrimination in employment. However, the Equal Treatment Act contains special provisions for employment (article 21-23). It is considered a violation of the principle of equal treatment in particular if the employer inflicts direct or indirect discrimination upon an employee, especially when the following dispositions are defined or applied: a) for access to work, especially in public job advertisements, hiring, and regarding the conditions of employment; b) for a disposition made before the establishment of the employment relationship related to work or to the procedure facilitating the establishment of such a relationship; c) in establishing and terminating the employment relationship or other relationship related to work; d) in relation to any training before or during the work; e) in determining and providing working conditions; f) in establishing and providing allowances due on the basis of the employment relationship or other relationship related to work, particularly wages; g) in relation to membership or participation in employees’ organisations; h) in the promotion system; i) in the enforcement of a liability for damages or of a disciplinary liability. The principle of equal treatment shall not be considered violated if a) the discrimination is proportional, justified by the characteristics or nature of the work and is based on all relevant and legitimate terms and conditions considered during hiring, or b) the discrimination arises directly from a religious or other ideological conviction or national or ethnic origin fundamentally determining the nature of the organisation, and it is proportional and justified by the nature of the employment activity or the conditions of its pursuit. During the application of the provisions of Article 21 f), any direct discrimination in relation to the characteristics defined in Article 8 a)-e) shall always violate the obligations of equal treatment.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2017-08-21

F2. Public employment services

The essential responsibilities related to vocational rehabilitation are undertaken by the network of employment centres. Employment centres have been integrated in the regional governmental offices. Establishing rehabilitation commissioners, groups and rehabilitation information centres within the employment centres was considered an important achievement. This organisation now has an accessible physical infrastructure and information and commutation technology. Vocational training services – within the framework of adult education state subsidies can be claimed for training people with disabilities, i.e. in the framework of National Employment Service the regional training centres provide training for people with disabilities according to the type of their disability. (This is not a mainstream type: the training centre in Székesfehérvár is specialised in people with physical impairment, the one in Pécs in people with intellectual disabilities, the one in Miskolc in people with visual impairment and the one in Debrecen in people with hearing impairment.)

Links

Update date: Wed, 2017-09-13

F3. Workplace adaptations

Provision of special equipment or adaptive technology at work is financed from the rehabilitation portion of the labour market fund through the employment centres. Personal assistance for people with disabilities at work is part of the expenditure compensation subsidy. State subsidies for work place adaptation, adaptive technologies and personal assistance are guaranteed. All of these are available on a competition basis every year until the funds are exhausted. The legal basis for flexible employment contracts is set up, however distance work, for example, as a systemic factor of high impact is virtually non-existent.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2017-08-21

F4. Financial incentives

Financial incentives for employing people with disabilities include personal income tax allowances, for companies. In Hungary, a 5% quota/levy system is in place. If a company has more than 20 employees (25 from 1 January 2012) then 5% should be disabled people. If not, the company has to pay a levy called 'rehabilitációshozzájárulás' (allowance for rehabilitation). From 2010 this amount is 964,500 HUF per employee (e.g. if they have 21 employees, and no disabled persons, they 5 x 964,500 HUF). If a company has more than 5 % of disabled employees, it may be eligible to receive special certification for tax allowances.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2017-09-13

G. Statistics and data collection

G1. Official research

The Central Statistical Office is responsible for collecting data, including all relevant aspects of disability affairs.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2017-06-20

G2. Census data

Act 46 of 1993 on Statistics provides that the Hungarian Central Statistical Office (KSH) is responsible for conducting a decennial population census. The most recent population census was conducted in October 2011, during which data collection relating to health status also included a thorough survey of persons with disabilities. The last National Census was regulated by Act 139 of 2009. The National Census contains data on disability (article 2 of the Act).

Links

Update date: Tue, 2017-06-20

G3. Labour Force Survey

The Hungarian Labour Force Survey is carried out by the Central Statistical Office. Topics covered are: employment, unemployment, underemployment, hours of work, duration of employment, duration of unemployment, discouraged workers, occasional workers, industry, occupation, employment status, educational level, second jobs. All of the population aged 15-74 years living in private households during the reference week are included. Excluded are the institutional and unsettled population, as well as household members temporarily absent and those residing abroad provided that they have common consumption with the surveyed household.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2017-08-21

G4. Disability equality indicators

There are no disability equality indicators based on public data sources.

Update date: Tue, 2017-06-20

H. Awareness and external action

H1. Awareness raising programs

The National Disability Program (2015-2025) declares the necessity of promoting and raising awareness of the equality and rights of disabled people. However, there have been only a few initiatives for awareness raising actions, including media campaigns financed by the EU Funds. One example is Get Closer (Kerülj közelebb!), a program of a media organisation called Médiaunió, which has a main topic every year and promotes this in journals/TV/radio.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2017-06-20

H2. Training for teachers

The general teacher training does not include the treatment of people with disabilities. To be able to teach these persons, teachers may need to finish a special pedagogical training, which is available only at the Bárczi Gusztáv Faculty of Special Education (Eötvös Loránd University) and the Apaczai Csere Janos Faculty (University of West Hungary).

Links

Update date: Tue, 2017-06-20

H3. Training for lawyers

Disability awareness and equality issues are not part of initial professional training programs for lawyers. The topics of the 'specialised legal exam' do not contain any specific topic related to these issues, beyond general legal provisions on equal treatment (constitutional law is part of the exam), labour law and social security law.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2017-08-21

H4. Training for doctors

Disability awareness and equality issues are not part of initial medical training programs for doctors. The Public Foundation of Equal Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities has launched an accredited training program (in 2010) for health workers with the support of the Institute for Basic and Continuing Education of Health Workers. The training programme includes communication development between non-disabled and disabled people, to guarantee equal opportunities for patients with special needs in the health service.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2017-06-20

H5. Training for engineers

Several Engineering Faculties have courses on accessibility (e.g. Budapest University of Engineering).

Links

Update date: Tue, 2017-06-20

H6. International development aid

Disability mainstreaming is not specifically identified in official programmes of international development aid.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2017-06-20

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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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                    [state] => 1
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => c1-transport-accessibility
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                    [access] => 0
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                    [path] => 
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                    [slug] => e1-special-schools
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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                    [path] => 
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 38
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [38] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 40
                    [parent_id] => 37
                    [lft] => 76
                    [rgt] => 77
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => f3-workplace-adaptations
                    [title] => F3. Workplace adaptations
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 39
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [39] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 41
                    [parent_id] => 37
                    [lft] => 78
                    [rgt] => 79
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => f4-financial-incentives
                    [title] => F4. Financial incentives
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 40
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [40] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 42
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 81
                    [rgt] => 90
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => g-statistics-and-data-collection
                    [title] => G. Statistics and data collection
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 41
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 4
                )

            [41] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 43
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 82
                    [rgt] => 83
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g1-official-research
                    [title] => G1. Official research
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 42
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [42] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 44
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 84
                    [rgt] => 85
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g2-census-data
                    [title] => G2. Census data
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 43
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [43] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 45
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 86
                    [rgt] => 87
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g3-labour-force-survey
                    [title] => G3. Labour Force Survey
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 44
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [44] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 46
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 88
                    [rgt] => 89
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g4-disability-equality-indicators
                    [title] => G4. Disability equality indicators
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 45
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [45] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 47
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 91
                    [rgt] => 104
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => h-awareness-and-external-action
                    [title] => H. Awareness and external action
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 46
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 6
                )

            [46] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 48
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 92
                    [rgt] => 93
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h1-awareness-raising-programs
                    [title] => H1. Awareness raising programs
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 47
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [47] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 49
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 94
                    [rgt] => 95
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h2-training-for-teachers
                    [title] => H2. Training for teachers
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 48
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [48] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 50
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 96
                    [rgt] => 97
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h3-training-for-lawyers
                    [title] => H3. Training for lawyers
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 49
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [49] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 51
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 98
                    [rgt] => 99
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h4-training-for-doctors
                    [title] => H4. Training for doctors
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 50
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [50] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 52
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 100
                    [rgt] => 101
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h5-training-for-engineers
                    [title] => H5. Training for engineers
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 51
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [51] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 53
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 102
                    [rgt] => 103
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h6-international-development-aid
                    [title] => H6. International development aid
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 52
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

        )

    [results] => Array
        (
            [18] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [parent] => EU Member States
                    [location] => Hungary
                    [location_id] => 18
                    [location_slug] => hungary
                    [themes] => Array
                        (
                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A1. Ratification or conclusion of the UN Convention
                                    [theme_slug] => a1-ratification-or-conclusion-of-the-un-convention
                                    [theme_id] => 3
                                    [contents] => Hungary signed the Convention on 30 March 2007. Following the ratification by Law 92 of 2007, the UN Convention came into force in Hungary on 3 May 2008 by decision 22/2008.(V.9) of the Minister of Foreign Affairs.
                                    [update_date] => 2017-06-19 19:20:30
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Hungarian text of Act 92 of 2007
                                                    [url] => http://njt.hu/cgi_bin/njt_doc.cgi?docid=110932.157855
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [4] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A2. Ratification or accession to the Optional Protocol
                                    [theme_slug] => a2-ratification-or-accession-to-the-optional-protocol
                                    [theme_id] => 4
                                    [contents] => Hungary was the first Member state to sign and ratify both the Convention and the Protocol. Hungary signed the Protocol on 30 March 2007 and ratified on 20 July 2007 by Law 92 of 2007. The Optional Protocol came into force in Hungary on 3 May 2008 by decision 22/2008.(V.9) of the Minister of Foreign Affairs.
                                    [update_date] => 2017-06-19 19:21:55
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act 92 of 2007
                                                    [url] => http://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=A0700092.TV
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [5] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A3. Declarations, Reservations and Objections
                                    [theme_slug] => a3-declarations-reservations-and-objections
                                    [theme_id] => 5
                                    [contents] => Hungary registered no declarations, reservations and objections to the UNCRPD.
                                    [update_date] => 2017-06-19 19:22:31
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act 92 of 2007
                                                    [url] => http://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=A0700092.TV
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [6] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A4. Comprehensive review
                                    [theme_slug] => a4-comprehensive-review
                                    [theme_id] => 6
                                    [contents] => A comprehensive review of existing legislation was undertaken by the National Disability Council in preparation for the implementation of the UN Convention.
                                    [update_date] => 2017-06-19 19:24:19
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Rehab Portál/ National Disability Council
                                                    [url] => https://rehabportal.hu/adatbank/intezmenyrendszer
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [7] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A5. Focal point
                                    [theme_slug] => a5-focal-point
                                    [theme_id] => 7
                                    [contents] => Hungary’s focal point for the UN CRPD is the Ministry of Human Resources. The Office of the Secretary of State for Social Inclusion is responsible for Disability affairs, including UN CRPD. The fundamental goal of the Office of the Secretary of State for Social Inclusion is that individuals and groups in disadvantaged positions should have access to their fair share of the expanding opportunities available. The essence of the new conception is its composite nature, which means that qualitative improvements in disadvantaged areas can only be seen if educational, social, healthcare and employment conditions are improved simultaneously.
                                    [update_date] => 2017-06-19 19:26:27
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Website of the Ministry of Human Resources (Hungarian and English)
                                                    [url] => http://www.kormany.hu/en/ministry-of-human-resources
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [8] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A6. Coordination mechanism
                                    [theme_slug] => a6-coordination-mechanism
                                    [theme_id] => 8
                                    [contents] => The National Council on Disability Affairs (NCD) was designated by the government as the independent mechanism in relation to the UNCRPD. Beyond NCD, Hungary has not established any other formal co-ordination mechanism for the UNCRPD. The mandate of the NCD members is regulated by Government decision 1330/2013.
                                    [update_date] => 2017-09-27 11:12:43
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Government decision 1330/2013 on NCD (in Hungarian)
                                                    [url] => https://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=A13H1330.KOR&txtreferer=A1000043.TV
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [9] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A7. Independent mechanism
                                    [theme_slug] => a7-independent-mechanism
                                    [theme_id] => 9
                                    [contents] => According to Government Decree 1065/2008, the National Council on Disability Affairs (NCD) was designated by the government as the independent mechanism in relation to the UNCRPD. The Council is an advisory agency to the government and reviews policies pertaining to persons with disabilities. Disabled people’s organisations are represented.
                                    [update_date] => 2017-06-19 19:35:22
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Hungary’s State Report has been reviewed by the UN CRPD Committee
                                                    [url] => http://www.mdac.info/en/04/10/2012/Hungary_under_review
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [10] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A8. Official reporting
                                    [theme_slug] => a8-official-reporting
                                    [theme_id] => 10
                                    [contents] => Hungary’s initial state report was due in June 2010 and submitted in October 2010. It was published in its final version in 2011.
                                    [update_date] => 2017-06-19 19:40:46
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => State reports to the UN Committee
                                                    [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=77&DocTypeID=29
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Link to all UN reporting cycle documentation
                                                    [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=77
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [11] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A9. Shadow reporting
                                    [theme_slug] => a9-shadow-reporting
                                    [theme_id] => 11
                                    [contents] => The Hungarian Civil Caucus was established in 2010 by civil disability organisations to monitor the implementation of the Convention. Nine NGOs and the Ombudsman are the members of the Caucus. The Hungarian Disability Caucus, published a Shadow Report on the UN Convention on 10 August 2010, which is available on various NGO websites but not submitted to the UN database.
                                    [update_date] => 2017-06-19 19:45:48
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Civil society reports to the UN Committee
                                                    [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=77&DocTypeID=14
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Hungarian Disability Caucus shadow report (English)
                                                    [url] => http://mdac.info/sites/mdac.info/files/english_crpd_alternative_report.pdf
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Hungarian Disability Caucus shadow report (Hungarian)
                                                    [url] => http://mdac.info/sites/mdac.info/files/hungarian_crpd_alternative_report.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [13] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => B. General legal framework
                                    [theme_title] => B1. Anti-discrimination legislation
                                    [theme_slug] => b1-anti-discrimination-legislation
                                    [theme_id] => 13
                                    [contents] => The anti-discrimination framework in general protects persons with disability. The Fundamental Law (new Constitution) contains a general anti-discrimination clause (Article XV.) and the Equal Treatment Act (Law 125 of 2003) provides detailed anti-discrimination rules. Furthermore, the Equal Opportunities Act (Act 26 of 1998) also contains specific provisions on equal treatment of persons with disability. The new Labour Code (Act 1 of 2012) contains a provision on reasonable accommodation (article 51.5): in the employment of persons with disabilities appropriate steps shall be taken to ensure that reasonable accommodation is provided. There are no specific provisions on disabled women and children. The Equal Treatment Act contains detailed rules on definitions, remedies and legal procedures. There are specific prohibitions on several fields, such as employment, housing, health care etc.
                                    [update_date] => 2017-06-20 13:04:22
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Equal Treatment Act (English)
                                                    [url] => http://www.egyenlobanasmod.hu/data/SZMM094B.pdf
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The New Fundamental Law of Hungary (English)
                                                    [url] => http://www.kormany.hu/download/e/02/00000/The%20New%20Fundamental%20Law%20of%20Hungary.pdf
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] =>  Equal Opportunities Act (Hungarian)
                                                    [url] => http://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=99800026.TV
                                                )

                                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Labour Code (English)
                                                    [url] => http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/MONOGRAPH/89886/103369/F-622727815/HUN89886.pdf
                                                )

                                            [4] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Equal Treatment Authority (English and Hungarian)
                                                    [url] => http://www.egyenlobanasmod.hu
                                                )

                                            [5] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Hungarian Helsinki Committee (English and Hungarian)
                                                    [url] => http://helsinki.hu/en/kategoria/equal-treatment-and-minorities/news-equal-treatment-and-minorities
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [14] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => B. General legal framework
                                    [theme_title] => B2. Recognition of legal capacity
                                    [theme_slug] => b2-recognition-of-legal-capacity
                                    [theme_id] => 14
                                    [contents] => The right of persons with disability to enter into legal commitments are based on their possibility to exercise their rights, i.e. on their legal status determined by the legal capacity (including both capacity to have rights and capacity to act). According to Act 5 of 2013 on the Civil Code, persons may be under plenary and partial guardianship, and their right is limited to enter into legal commitments. Article 2:38 contains rules on supported decision-making.

According to Article 21 of the new Labour Code, people under partial guardianship are allowed to conclude a labour contract, which is a legal commitment. Persons under guardianship may conclude employment relationships only for jobs which they are capable to handle on a stable and continuous basis in the light of their medical condition (article 212 of the Labour Code). Legal acts on behalf of persons under guardianship shall be made by the legal representatives (article 21. 5 of the Labour Code). [update_date] => 2017-08-20 16:35:47 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Civil Code (Hungarian) [url] => http://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=A1300005.TV ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Labour Code (English) [url] => http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/MONOGRAPH/89886/103369/F-622727815/HUN89886.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Information on the new Civil Code (Hungarian) [url] => http://ptk2013.hu/?gclid=CP_mt_7U4bkCFcGd3godWCIAzA ) ) ) [15] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B3. Accessibility of voting and elections [theme_slug] => b3-accessibility-of-voting-and-elections [theme_id] => 15 [contents] => Every adult Hungarian citizen shall have the right to be a voter as well as a candidate in the elections of Members of Parliament, local representatives and mayors, and of members of the European Parliament. A person disenfranchised by a court for committing an offence or due to his or her limited mental capacity shall have no suffrage (Fundamental Law, article 23). Article 13/A of Act 36 of 2013 on election procedure contains detailed procedural provisions on the limitation of the right to vote, implementing Article XXIII. (6) of the Basic Law:

  1. The court must settle the issue of excluding from the right to vote in the sentence on guardianship restricting or excluding legal capacity.
  2. The court shall exclude the adult person from the right to vote, if his/her ability to act:
    • is permanently and remarkably diminished by psychical condition, mental health problem or addiction; or
    • is missing due to his/her psychical condition or mental disability.
  3. If the court does not deprive the person with limited or without legal capacity of the right to vote, the person under guardianship shall exercise personally his/her right to vote and able to make valid legal acts regarding the exercise of this right.
  4. The person who is legally authorised to initiate a court proceeding aiming at guardianship of another person, may also ask the court to deprive this adult person’s right to vote irrespective of the conditions mentioned in Subsection (1) above.
[update_date] => 2017-08-20 16:37:17 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => New Fundamental Law of Hungary (English) [url] => http://www.kormany.hu/download/e/02/00000/The%20New%20Fundamental%20Law%20of%20Hungary.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act 36 of 2013 on election procedure (Hungarian) [url] => http://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=A1300036.TV ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Film on disability and suffrage (Hungarian) [url] => http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PBgao8ZklGY ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Opinion of the Civil Liberties Union (Hungarian) [url] => http://tasz.hu/files/tasz/imce/valasztojog_korlatozasa_reszletes_velemeny.pdf ) ) ) [16] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B4. Official recognition of sign language [theme_slug] => b4-official-recognition-of-sign-language [theme_id] => 16 [contents] => Act 125 of 2009 on Hungarian sign language is a new law, which defines the community of hearing impaired persons as members of a linguistic minority by acknowledging Hungarian sign language. The Act defines the deaf and deafblind person’s right to learn and use special communication systems. In the future, deaf and deafblind persons will be able to communicate at offices with the help of sign language interpreters. From 2017, education in Hungarian sign language will be obligatory for deaf children in special schools, while in the integrated schools they will become eligible even if only one parent of the child chooses it. From 2017 it will be obligatory to organise bilingual education in deaf children’s schools for the children who have chosen it. The Act also declares that kindergartens, equivalent pre-schools and other schools educating a child living with disability shall be chosen by the parent on the basis of the information provided by the expert and rehabilitation committee. The expert and rehabilitation committee is regulated by the Public Education Act. [update_date] => 2017-09-13 14:58:34 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act 125 of 2009 on Hungarian Sign Language and the use of Hungarian Sign Language (Hungarian) [url] => http://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=A0900125.TV ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Sign language bill (European Union of the Deaf – English) [url] => http://www.eud.eu/news.php?action=view&news_id=78 ) ) ) [17] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B5. National disability strategy and action plan [theme_slug] => b5-national-disability-strategy-and-action-plan [theme_id] => 17 [contents] => The Act 26 of 1998 on ensuring equal opportunities for persons with disabilities provides that the Parliament and the government must create a mid-term National Disability Programme (Országos Fogyatékosügyi Program), and on that basis, a short-term action plan. The Parliament passed a Resolution in 2006 (No. 10/2006) on the new National Disability Programme for the period of 2007-2013. Government Decree No. 1062/2007 contained the midterm action plan for the implementation of the National Disability Programme during 2007–2010. After the elections in May 2010, the National Disability Council was re-established only in November 2011. After consultation with the National Disability Council, Government Decree No. 1056/2012 contains the action plan for implementation of the National Disability Programme in the years 2012–2013 (after the 2007-2010 action plan). The Parliament passed the new National Disability Programme (2015-2025) on 31 March 2015 (Decision of Parliament No. 15/2015). The government passed an Action Plan (Government Decision No. 1653/2015) for 2015-2018 to implement the National Disability Programme. [update_date] => 2017-06-20 13:20:17 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Disability Program (2015-2025) in Hungarian [url] => http://kozlonyok.hu/nkonline/MKPDF/hiteles/MK15047.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Action Plan (Government Decision No. 1653/2015) for 2015-2018 to implement the National Disability Program (in Hungarian) [url] => http://www.kozlonyok.hu/nkonline/index.php?menuindex=200&pageindex=kozltart&ev=2015&szam=127 ) ) ) [19] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => C. Accessibility [theme_title] => C1. Transport accessibility [theme_slug] => c1-transport-accessibility [theme_id] => 19 [contents] => Transport providers are required by the Equal Opportunities Act (26 of 1998) to provide accessibility for disabled passengers, and this applies to all forms of public transport (rail, buses). The deadlines on accessibility of transport systems were deleted from the Act by an amendment in 2013 (Act 62 of 2013).

The Equal Treatment Act (125 of 2003) shall by applied regarding the legal disputes on accessibility. The Equal Treatment Authority and the courts may sanction breaching of obligations in the Equal Opportunities Act. The Advisory Body of the Equal Treatment Authority interpreted in its opinion the legal provisions on accessibility.

The accessibility of public transport vehicle is regulated by Decree 6/1990 (12 April) of the Ministry of Transport, Communications and Energy, on the technical requirements for the operation of road vehicles. The scope of the Decree covers all vehicles on public roads, including cars, buses, trolley buses, motorbikes etc. It contains very basic obligations on special places for disabled persons.

In 2009, the Parliamentary Commissioner for Civil Rights (Állampolgári Jogok Országgyûlési Biztosának Irodája, OBH-ÁJOB) launched an investigation about the conditions of public transport, including rail transport, in the capital and the country.
The results showed:

  • Railcars: 13% accessible, 6% partly accessible, 81% not accessible;
  • Passenger cars: 3% accessible, 97% not accessible;
  • Passenger facilities: 4.5% of the buildings are accessible, 4.7% have disabled toilet, 0.5% have tactile warning facilities.
[update_date] => 2017-08-20 16:45:53 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Equal Treatment Authority (Hungarian and English) [url] => http://www.egyenlobanasmod.hu/ ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Equal Opportunities Act (Hungarian) [url] => http://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=99800026.TV ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Position No. 10.007/3/2006. TT. of the Equal Treatment Advisory Board on the obligation of providing accessibility (English) [url] => http://www.egyenlobanasmod.hu/data/AB_sp103.pdf ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Association of Disability Organizations (Hungarian) [url] => http://www.meosz.hu ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Public Foundation for Disabled Persons (Hungarian, English) [url] => http://fszk.hu/english/ ) ) ) [20] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => C. Accessibility [theme_title] => C2. Built environment accessibility [theme_slug] => c2-built-environment-accessibility [theme_id] => 20 [contents] => Buildings, in which public services are provided, are required by the Equal Opportunities Act (26 of 1998) to be accessible to disabled people. This applies to all buildings open to the public, private buildings, new and old buildings as well. However, buildings of public administration and customer services are exempted from this obligation until 2013. The Equal Treatment Act (125 of 2003) shall be applied for the legal procedures on breaching this obligation. The Equal Treatment Authority and the courts may sanction the omission of accessibility. The Advisory Body of the Equal Treatment Authority interprets the legal provisions on accessibility. [update_date] => 2017-08-20 16:47:52 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Equal Treatment Authority (Hungarian and English) [url] => http://www.egyenlobanasmod.hu/ ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Position No. 10.007/3/2006. TT. of the Equal Treatment Advisory Board on the obligation of providing accessibility [url] => http://www.egyenlobanasmod.hu/data/AB_sp103.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act XXVI. of 1998 on the Rights of People with Disabilities [url] => http://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=99800026.TV ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Equal Treatment Act (125 of 2003) [url] => http://www.equalrightstrust.org/content/hungaryact-cxxv-2003-equal-treatment-and-promotion-equal-opportunities ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => CRPD Alternative Report (2010) [url] => http://mdac.info/sites/mdac.info/files/hungarian_crpd_alternative_report.pdf ) [5] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Office of the Commissioner for Fundamental Rights, Disability Project (Hungarian) [url] => http://www.ajk.elte.hu/file/annales_2010_09_Szabo.pdf ) [6] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Association of Disability Organizations (MEOSZ) [url] => http://www.meosz.hu ) [7] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Public Foundation for Disabled Persons (Hungarian, English) [url] => http://fszk.hu/english/ ) ) ) [21] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => C. Accessibility [theme_title] => C3. ICT and Web accessibility [theme_slug] => c3-ict-and-web-accessibility [theme_id] => 21 [contents] => ICTs and websites are not specifically mentioned by the Equal Opportunities Act (26 of 1998), however these are also required to be accessible to disabled people by the provision on accessibility of information. There is no exemption regarding ICTs and websites. The Equal Treatment Act (125 of 2003) shall be applied for the legal procedures related to breaching of this obligation. The Equal Treatment Authority and the courts may sanction the omission of accessibility. The Advisory Body of the Equal Treatment Authority interprets the legal provisions on accessibility. Government Decree No. 305/2005 regulates those websites, where information of public interest is announced. These websites must be accessible for blind persons and persons with sight impairment. The Public Foundation for Equal opportunities of Disabled People prepared a Methodology Guidance for Ensuring Accessibility, which deals with the accessibility of websites as well. Moreover, a special Recommendation for info-communication accessibility was also issued by the Public Foundation. These papers are not compulsory documents, but they provide information on technical issues concerning accessibility to buildings, of websites, communication and services. Hungary has not signed the Marrakesh Treaty. [update_date] => 2017-08-20 16:51:20 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Equal Treatment Authority (Hungarian and English) [url] => http://www.egyenlobanasmod.hu/ ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Position No. 10.007/3/2006. TT. of the Equal Treatment Advisory Board on the obligation of providing accessibility [url] => http://www.egyenlobanasmod.hu/data/AB_sp103.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act XXVI. of 1998 on the Rights of People with Disabilities [url] => http://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=99800026.TV ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act CXXV of 2003 on Equal Treatment and Promotion of Equal Opportunities [url] => http://www.equalrightstrust.org/content/hungaryact-cxxv-2003-equal-treatment-and-promotion-equal-opportunities ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => SINOSZ - MDAC - FESZT: Disability Rights or Disabling Rights? CRPD Alternative Report, 2010 [url] => http://mdac.info/sites/mdac.info/files/english_crpd_alternative_report.pdf ) [5] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Office of the Commissioner for Fundamental Rights, Disability Project (Hungarian) [url] => http://www.ajk.elte.hu/file/annales_2010_09_Szabo.pdf ) [6] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Association of Disability Organizations (MEOSZ) [url] => http://www.meosz.hu ) [7] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Public Foundation for Disabled Persons (Hungarian, English) [url] => http://fszk.hu/english/ ) ) ) [23] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D1. Choice of living arrangements [theme_slug] => d1-choice-of-living-arrangements [theme_id] => 23 [contents] => Act 26 of 1998 on the rights of people with disability and ensuring equal opportunities includes the following right: 'Persons living with disability have the right to choose a form of residence – family home, residential home, institution – corresponding to their disability and personal circumstances' (17 §). [update_date] => 2017-06-20 13:46:11 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Equal Opportunities Act (Hungarian) [url] => http://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=99800026.TV ) ) ) [24] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D2. De-institutionalisation [theme_slug] => d2-de-institutionalisation [theme_id] => 24 [contents] => The Equal Opportunities Act prescribes that long-term institutions must be closed gradually (article 17 as amended in 2010), and 1,500 persons living with disability capable of independent living with personal help must be housed in residential homes for small communities by 31 December 2013, which will be financed by the EU Funds. The rest of the institutions not affected by the above mentioned change in 2013 will be replaced by residential homes according to a schedule defined by the government.

There is a strategy on de-institutionalisation approved by the Government on 21 July 2011 (Government Resolution 1257/2011). The strategy's time frame is 2011-2041. From January 2011 on new institutional places can only be created in community-based forms. Institutions housing more than 50 persons gradually have to be transformed into community-based services. [update_date] => 2017-08-20 16:52:27 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Government resolution 1257/2011 on strategy on de-institutionalisation (Hungarian) [url] => http://fszk.hu/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/Kormanyhatarozat-es-Strategia-a-fogyatekos-szemelyek-szamara-apolast-gondozast-nyujto-szocialis-intezmenyi-ferohelyek-kivaltasarol.pdf ) ) ) [25] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D3. Quality of social services [theme_slug] => d3-quality-of-social-services [theme_id] => 25 [contents] => Minimum standards, time frames and quality principles of social services are regulated by Act 3 of 1993 on social administration and services and by Decree 1/2000 on its enforcement (published by the Ministry of Social and Family Affairs). This legislation applies equally to state, non-state and church service providers (these three are being defined by the Act). Consequently all service providers must observe the material, personal conditions, professional specifications (e.g. preparation of professional program, right to complaint etc.) contained therein. The control is regulated by the Government Decree of 369/2013 (X.24) on the registration and control of social and child protection service providers and institutions. [update_date] => 2017-09-28 11:12:21 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act 3 of 1993 on social administration and social services (Hungarian) [url] => https://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=99300003.TV ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Decree 1/2000 of the Ministry of Social and Family Affairs on the professional duties of the social welfare institutions providing personal care and on the conditions of their operation (Hungarian) [url] => https://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=a0000001.scm ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Government Decree of 369/2013 (X.24) on the registration and control of social and child protection service providers and institutions (Hungarian) [url] => https://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=a1300369.kor ) ) ) [26] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D4. Provision of assistive devices at home [theme_slug] => d4-provision-of-assistive-devices-at-home [theme_id] => 26 [contents] => Assistive equipment, as well as information and services, is mostly provided by NGOs. As an allowance in kind, a free medication card allows the purchase of therapeutic equipment and medicine. Other allowances of this kind are car purchase support, car conversion support, home adaptations, as well as several forms of transportation support. For all forms of assistive support, conditions of entitlement and administrative processes are rather complex. Nevertheless, extensive governmental and non-governmental information is available for those concerned. [update_date] => 2017-08-20 16:58:19 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act 26 of 1998 on ensuring equal opportunities for persons with disabilities (Hungarian) [url] => http://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=99800026.TV ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Social Services Act 3 of 1993 (Hungarian) [url] => http://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=99300003.TV ) ) ) [27] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D5. Availability of personal assistance schemes [theme_slug] => d5-availability-of-personal-assistance-schemes [theme_id] => 27 [contents] => Independent living is supported essentially by three personal assistance (social) services, regulated by Act 3 of 1993 on Social Governance and Social Benefits. The promotion of independent living of disabled people is mostly realised in the framework of the so called support services. In several higher educational institutions 'student helping services' are available. [update_date] => 2017-08-21 15:11:38 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act 3 of 1993 on Social Governance and Social Benefits (Hungarian) [url] => http://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=99300003.TV ) ) ) [28] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D6. Income maintenance [theme_slug] => d6-income-maintenance [theme_id] => 28 [contents] => It is Act 3 of 1993 on social administration and social services that defines cash benefits and benefits in kind available to persons who are disadvantaged for any reason, as well as to children and families. In theory, all these are also available to persons with disabilities. These concrete services, which local governments or other organizations are obliged to render are as follows:

A) Cash benefits: regular social benefit (Article 37/A); care allowance (Articles 40-44); a financial benefit for an adult providing care at home for a dependant person.

B) Social services: food service (Article 62); family support (Article 64); help in homes fitted with systems to request assistance (Article 65); supporting service (Article 65/C); day care (Article 65/F); home for persons with disabilities (Article 69); rehabilitation institution for persons with disabilities (Article 74); nursing home for persons with disabilities (temporary institution) (Article 83); residential home for persons with disabilities (Article 85/A). [update_date] => 2017-08-20 16:58:56 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act 3 of 1993 on social administration and social services (Hungarian) [url] => http://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=99300003.TV ) ) ) [29] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D7. Additional costs [theme_slug] => d7-additional-costs [theme_id] => 29 [contents] => Persons not entitled to disability pension are supported by other benefits. The amount of these benefits is determined by the years spent at work and the level of disability. There are dozens of benefits available. From the employment point of view one either collects disability pension or one of the following five benefits: 1) temporary benefits; 2) regular social benefits; 3) health impairment benefits; 4) disability benefits; 5) accident benefits. [update_date] => 2017-08-20 17:00:26 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Social services (in Hungarian) [url] => http://www.kormany.hu/download/e/49/30000/T%C3%A1j%C3%A9koztat%C3%B3%20alapszolg%C3%A1ltat%C3%A1st%20ny%C3%BAjt%C3%B3k%20r%C3%A9sz%C3%A9re%20a%20szoci%C3%A1lis%20ell%C3%A1t%C3%A1sok%20v%C3%A1ltoz%C3%A1sair%C3%B3l.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => State Treasury [url] => http://www.allamkincstar.gov.hu/kincstar/kereses/?kereses=fogyat%E9koss%E1gi ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Club for Disabled People [url] => http://fogyatekosok.network.hu/ ) ) ) [30] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D8. Retirement income [theme_slug] => d8-retirement-income [theme_id] => 30 [contents] => Act 191 of 2011 on allowances of persons with limited capacity to work changed the former complex system of disability pensions from 1 January 2012. There are two kinds of retirement incomes after this date: rehabilitation allowance and disability allowance. Rehabilitation allowance shall be provided for those persons (for a period of maximum 3 years), whose working capacity may be rehabilitated or require continuous employment rehabilitation. Disability allowance shall be provided for those persons (for a period of maximum three years), whose rehabilitation is not recommended. The Act contains very detailed rules on eligibility criteria. [update_date] => 2017-06-20 15:25:58 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act 191 of 2011 (Hungarian) [url] => http://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/getdoc2.cgi?dbnum=1&docid=A1100191.TV ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Guidance on the new disability allowances – 2015 (Hungarian) [url] => https://www.onyf.hu/hu/uegyintezes/%C3%BCgyint%C3%A9z%C3%A9si-t%C3%A1j%C3%A9koztat%C3%B3k/109-rokkants%C3%A1gi-j%C3%A1rad%C3%A9k/950-az-orsz%C3%A1gos-nyugd%C3%ADjbiztos%C3%ADt%C3%A1si-f%C5%91igazgat%C3%B3s%C3%A1g-t%C3%A1j%C3%A9koztat%C3%B3ja-a-rokkants%C3%A1gi-j%C3%A1rad%C3%A9kr%C3%B3l.html?highlight=WyJyb2trYW50c1x1MDBlMWdpIiwiZWxsXHUwMGUxdFx1MDBlMXMiLCJyb2trYW50c1x1MDBlMWdpIGVsbFx1MDBlMXRcdTAwZTFzIl0= ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Guidance of the National Pension Insurance Directorate (Hungarian) [url] => http://www.onyf.hu/?module=news&action=show&nid=10290&root=ONYF&rand=61ce84349408383674e628e82cb21cbf ) ) ) [32] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E1. Special schools [theme_slug] => e1-special-schools [theme_id] => 32 [contents] => The Act on National Public Education (Act 190 of 2011) provides two choices for children with disabilities: education in special schools or in regular pre-schools and schools. The annual amount allocated by the government for the costs of education is two or three times higher in the case of a child with a disability (in both a segregated or integrated setting) than for a non-disabled child, depending on the level of disability. [update_date] => 2017-06-20 15:34:20 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act 190 of 2011 on National Public Education (in Hungarian) [url] => http://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=A1100190.TV ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Reports of the Commissioner for Educational Rights on enforcement of educational rights of disabled persons (in Hungarian) [url] => http://www.oktbiztos.hu/ugyek/jelentes2004/fogyatekos.html ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Reports of the Commissioner for Educational Rights on enforcement of educational rights (in English) [url] => http://www.oktbiztos.hu/cases/ugyeknyito.html ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Study on enforcement of educational rights of disabled persons (in Hungarian) [url] => http://www.hier.iif.hu/hu/letoltes.php?fid=tartalomsor/1080 ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Information on changes in public education from 2012 (Hungarian) [url] => http://www.budapestedu.hu/data/cms150398/tanevkezdo_tajekoztato_2012.pdf ) ) ) [33] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E2. Mainstream schools [theme_slug] => e2-mainstream-schools [theme_id] => 33 [contents] => The Equal Opportunities Act (26 of 1998) regulates extensively the whole life of people with disabilities. Regarding education and training of disabled persons, the Act declares in Article 13: (1) 'It is the right of a person living with disability to take part in early development and care corresponding to his or her condition and depending on age, to kindergarten training, school training and education and development preparation for such education, in keeping with the provisions of the Act on Public Education'; (2) 'If it is advantageous for development of the capabilities of the person living with disability - in keeping with the opinion of the expert and rehabilitation committee set up for this purpose – the person living with disability shall take part in kindergarten training and school education together with other children and pupils, in the same kindergarten group or school class.' [update_date] => 2017-08-20 17:02:12 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Equal Opportunities Act (26 of 1998) [url] => http://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=99800026.TV ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Reports of the Commissioner for Educational Rights on enforcement of educational rights of disabled persons (in Hungarian) [url] => http://www.oktbiztos.hu/ugyek/jelentes2004/fogyatekos.html ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Reports of the Commissioner for Educational Rights on enforcement of educational rights (in English) [url] => http://www.oktbiztos.hu/cases/ugyeknyito.html ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Study on enforcement of educational rights of disabled persons (in Hungarian) [url] => http://www.hier.iif.hu/hu/letoltes.php?fid=tartalomsor/1080 ) ) ) [34] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E3. Sign language and Braille in school [theme_slug] => e3-sign-language-and-braille-in-school [theme_id] => 34 [contents] => According to Act 125 of 2009 on Hungarian sign language, education in Hungarian sign language will be obligatory for deaf children in special schools from 2017, while in the integrated schools they will become eligible even if only one of the child's parents chooses it. From 2017 it will be obligatory to organize bilingual education in deaf children’s schools for the children who have chosen it (article 12-13, in force from 2017). [update_date] => 2017-06-20 15:40:38 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act 125 of 2009 on Hungarian Sign Language and the use of Hungarian Sign Language (Hungarian) [url] => http://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=A0900125.TV ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => HSL bill passed in Hungary 9 November 2009 (English) [url] => http://sinosz.hu/sinosz-materials-in-english/sign-language/ ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act 125 of 2009 on Hungarian Sign Language and the use of Hungarian Sign Language (in English) [url] => http://sinosz.hu/sinosz-materials-in-english/sign-language/ ) ) ) [35] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E4. Vocational training [theme_slug] => e4-vocational-training [theme_id] => 35 [contents] => Vocational training providers are subject to non-discrimination laws in relation to disability (Act 125 of 2003 on equal treatment). Act 187 of 2011 on National Vocational Education (article 11) contains special provisions on trainings and exams of persons with disability. Országos Képzési Jegyzék (OKJ) is a basis of free training provided by the state, where people can choose from different professions. It is open to disabled people, if the training provider (school/organisation) has an accessible environment. [update_date] => 2017-09-13 15:00:04 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Vocational Training Act (187 of 2011) in Hungarian [url] => http://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=a1100187.TV ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Changes in vocational training from 2015 (in Hungarian) [url] => http://csmkik.hu/hu/szakkepzes/cikkek/megjelentek-a-szakkepzes-egeszet-erinto-jogszabalymodositasok-83581 ) ) ) [36] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E5. Higher education [theme_slug] => e5-higher-education [theme_id] => 36 [contents] => The National Higher Education Act (Law 204 of 2011) defines a 'student with disability' (article 108) and declares that in the event that the higher education institution stipulates an assessment examination, disabled applicants should be granted exemption and special arrangements must be made in order to take the examination. This right should also be extended to persons who were not granted such opportunities as a result of their disability in secondary education but who can in fact provide proof of their disability. The state-funded period may be prolonged to four semesters in the case of students with disabilities. Where appropriate, they should be exempted from the obligation to take certain course units, certain parts thereof or undergo assessment. If necessary, such students shall be exempted from a language examination or a part of it, or the related requirements of such language examinations. Disabled students should be given more time to prepare for examinations, and be afforded the opportunity to use aids during written tests (typewriter, computer, etc.), or if necessary, to have a written test instead of an oral test, or an oral test instead of a written one. The exemption shall exclusively be granted in the context of the condition justifying such exemption and may not result in exemption from basic academic requirements needed for professional Bachelor and Masters qualifications or vocational qualifications, which are evidenced by the certificate of higher-level vocational training. In 2002 only 271 disabled persons were studying in higher education. This number rose to 1,176 in 2008. One of the most important reasons for this growth was the 50 extra points in the process of the entrance examination, which was given to disabled persons by the Act of Higher Education. The detailed rules on access to higher education institutions and preferential treatment of disabled applicants in this procedure are regulated by the Government Decree 87/2015. [update_date] => 2017-09-13 15:01:30 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Government Regulation on Higher Education 87/2015 (in Hungarian) [url] => http://jogiportal.hu/view/87-2015-iv-9-korm-rendelet ) ) ) [38] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F1. Non-discrimination in employment [theme_slug] => f1-non-discrimination-in-employment [theme_id] => 38 [contents] => Non-discrimination in occupation and employment is assured by the Equal Treatment Act (125 of 2003). The general provisions (definitions, sanctions, procedural rules) shall be applied for discrimination in employment. However, the Equal Treatment Act contains special provisions for employment (article 21-23). It is considered a violation of the principle of equal treatment in particular if the employer inflicts direct or indirect discrimination upon an employee, especially when the following dispositions are defined or applied: a) for access to work, especially in public job advertisements, hiring, and regarding the conditions of employment; b) for a disposition made before the establishment of the employment relationship related to work or to the procedure facilitating the establishment of such a relationship; c) in establishing and terminating the employment relationship or other relationship related to work; d) in relation to any training before or during the work; e) in determining and providing working conditions; f) in establishing and providing allowances due on the basis of the employment relationship or other relationship related to work, particularly wages; g) in relation to membership or participation in employees’ organisations; h) in the promotion system; i) in the enforcement of a liability for damages or of a disciplinary liability. The principle of equal treatment shall not be considered violated if a) the discrimination is proportional, justified by the characteristics or nature of the work and is based on all relevant and legitimate terms and conditions considered during hiring, or b) the discrimination arises directly from a religious or other ideological conviction or national or ethnic origin fundamentally determining the nature of the organisation, and it is proportional and justified by the nature of the employment activity or the conditions of its pursuit. During the application of the provisions of Article 21 f), any direct discrimination in relation to the characteristics defined in Article 8 a)-e) shall always violate the obligations of equal treatment. [update_date] => 2017-08-21 15:43:18 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Equal Treatment Authority (English and Hungarian) [url] => http://www.egyenlobanasmod.hu/ ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act CXXV of 2003 on Equal Treatment and Promotion of Equal Opportunities [url] => http://www.equalrightstrust.org/content/hungaryact-cxxv-2003-equal-treatment-and-promotion-equal-opportunities ) ) ) [39] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F2. Public employment services [theme_slug] => f2-public-employment-services [theme_id] => 39 [contents] => The essential responsibilities related to vocational rehabilitation are undertaken by the network of employment centres. Employment centres have been integrated in the regional governmental offices. Establishing rehabilitation commissioners, groups and rehabilitation information centres within the employment centres was considered an important achievement. This organisation now has an accessible physical infrastructure and information and commutation technology. Vocational training services – within the framework of adult education state subsidies can be claimed for training people with disabilities, i.e. in the framework of National Employment Service the regional training centres provide training for people with disabilities according to the type of their disability. (This is not a mainstream type: the training centre in Székesfehérvár is specialised in people with physical impairment, the one in Pécs in people with intellectual disabilities, the one in Miskolc in people with visual impairment and the one in Debrecen in people with hearing impairment.) [update_date] => 2017-09-13 15:04:51 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act 4 of 1991 on the promotion of employment and unemployment benefit [url] => http://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=99100004.TV ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Employment Service (English) [url] => http://en.munka.hu/ ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Employment Service (Hungarian) [url] => http://nfsz.munka.hu/engine.aspx?page=orszagos_fooldal ) ) ) [40] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F3. Workplace adaptations [theme_slug] => f3-workplace-adaptations [theme_id] => 40 [contents] => Provision of special equipment or adaptive technology at work is financed from the rehabilitation portion of the labour market fund through the employment centres. Personal assistance for people with disabilities at work is part of the expenditure compensation subsidy. State subsidies for work place adaptation, adaptive technologies and personal assistance are guaranteed. All of these are available on a competition basis every year until the funds are exhausted. The legal basis for flexible employment contracts is set up, however distance work, for example, as a systemic factor of high impact is virtually non-existent. [update_date] => 2017-08-21 15:56:07 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act 4 of 1991 on the promotion of employment and unemployment benefit (Hungarian) [url] => http://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=99100004.TV ) ) ) [41] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F4. Financial incentives [theme_slug] => f4-financial-incentives [theme_id] => 41 [contents] => Financial incentives for employing people with disabilities include personal income tax allowances, for companies. In Hungary, a 5% quota/levy system is in place. If a company has more than 20 employees (25 from 1 January 2012) then 5% should be disabled people. If not, the company has to pay a levy called 'rehabilitációshozzájárulás' (allowance for rehabilitation). From 2010 this amount is 964,500 HUF per employee (e.g. if they have 21 employees, and no disabled persons, they 5 x 964,500 HUF). If a company has more than 5 % of disabled employees, it may be eligible to receive special certification for tax allowances. [update_date] => 2017-09-13 15:07:58 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act 4 of 1991 on the promotion of employment and unemployment benefit (Hungarian) [url] => http://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=99100004.TV ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act 191 of 2011 containing provisions on allowance for rehabilitation (Hungarian) [url] => http://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/getdoc2.cgi?dbnum=1&docid=A1100191.TV ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Rehabilitation quota (Hungarian) [url] => http://feek.pte.hu/data/2013/1230/646/ZAROTANULMANY_REHABKUT_vegso.pdf ) ) ) [43] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G1. Official research [theme_slug] => g1-official-research [theme_id] => 43 [contents] => The Central Statistical Office is responsible for collecting data, including all relevant aspects of disability affairs. [update_date] => 2017-06-20 16:11:12 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Central Statistical Office (English and Hungarian) [url] => http://www.ksh.hu/?lang=en ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Disability Statistics 2007 (in Hungarian) [url] => http://5mp.eu/fajlok/epifriend/fogyatekkal_elok_2007_www.5mp.eu_.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Disabled persons in the labour market 2011 (in Hungarian) [url] => http://www.ksh.hu/docs/hun/xftp/idoszaki/pdf/megvaltmunkakep.pdf ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Disability Statistics 2011 - Census 2011 (in Hungarian) [url] => http://www.ksh.hu/docs/hun/xftp/idoszaki/nepsz2011/nepsz_11_2011.pdf ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Persons with disability: their situation and social care - Census 2011 (in Hungarian) [url] => http://www.ksh.hu/docs/hun/xftp/idoszaki/nepsz2011/nepsz_17_2011.pdf ) ) ) [44] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G2. Census data [theme_slug] => g2-census-data [theme_id] => 44 [contents] => Act 46 of 1993 on Statistics provides that the Hungarian Central Statistical Office (KSH) is responsible for conducting a decennial population census. The most recent population census was conducted in October 2011, during which data collection relating to health status also included a thorough survey of persons with disabilities. The last National Census was regulated by Act 139 of 2009. The National Census contains data on disability (article 2 of the Act). [update_date] => 2017-06-20 16:14:01 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Census Results 2011 (English and Hungarian) [url] => http://www.ksh.hu/nepszamlalas/ ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Central Statistical Office (in English and Hungarian) [url] => http://www.ksh.hu/ ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Discrimination against blind persons in the method of the National Census (in Hungarian) [url] => http://www.origo.hu/itthon/20120313-vakokat-diszkriminalt-a-ksh-az-internetes-nepszamlalaskor.html ) ) ) [45] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G3. Labour Force Survey [theme_slug] => g3-labour-force-survey [theme_id] => 45 [contents] => The Hungarian Labour Force Survey is carried out by the Central Statistical Office. Topics covered are: employment, unemployment, underemployment, hours of work, duration of employment, duration of unemployment, discouraged workers, occasional workers, industry, occupation, employment status, educational level, second jobs. All of the population aged 15-74 years living in private households during the reference week are included. Excluded are the institutional and unsettled population, as well as household members temporarily absent and those residing abroad provided that they have common consumption with the surveyed household. [update_date] => 2017-08-21 16:08:34 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Central Statistical Office (English and Hungarian) [url] => http://www.ksh.hu/ ) ) ) [46] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G4. Disability equality indicators [theme_slug] => g4-disability-equality-indicators [theme_id] => 46 [contents] => There are no disability equality indicators based on public data sources. [update_date] => 2017-06-20 16:18:01 [links] => Array ( ) ) [48] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H1. Awareness raising programs [theme_slug] => h1-awareness-raising-programs [theme_id] => 48 [contents] => The National Disability Program (2015-2025) declares the necessity of promoting and raising awareness of the equality and rights of disabled people. However, there have been only a few initiatives for awareness raising actions, including media campaigns financed by the EU Funds. One example is Get Closer (Kerülj közelebb!), a program of a media organisation called Médiaunió, which has a main topic every year and promotes this in journals/TV/radio. [update_date] => 2017-06-20 16:22:37 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Disability Program (2015-2025) [url] => http://revprojekt.hu/hir/193/orszagos-fogyatekossagugyi-program-2015-2025- ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Get Closer (Kerülj közelebb!) [url] => https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gQcJW8ohWmI ) ) ) [49] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H2. Training for teachers [theme_slug] => h2-training-for-teachers [theme_id] => 49 [contents] => The general teacher training does not include the treatment of people with disabilities. To be able to teach these persons, teachers may need to finish a special pedagogical training, which is available only at the Bárczi Gusztáv Faculty of Special Education (Eötvös Loránd University) and the Apaczai Csere Janos Faculty (University of West Hungary). [update_date] => 2017-06-20 16:24:00 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Bárczi Gusztáv Faculty of Special Education [url] => https://www.elte.hu/en/special_education ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => University of West Hungary, Apaczai Csere Janos Faculty (Hungary) [url] => http://www.uniwest.hu/index.php/13631/?&L=1 ) ) ) [50] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H3. Training for lawyers [theme_slug] => h3-training-for-lawyers [theme_id] => 50 [contents] => Disability awareness and equality issues are not part of initial professional training programs for lawyers. The topics of the 'specialised legal exam' do not contain any specific topic related to these issues, beyond general legal provisions on equal treatment (constitutional law is part of the exam), labour law and social security law. [update_date] => 2017-08-21 16:09:33 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Specialized exam for lawyers (Hungarian) [url] => http://igazsagugyiinformaciok.kormany.hu/tetelek-es-elsajatitando-tananyag ) ) ) [51] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H4. Training for doctors [theme_slug] => h4-training-for-doctors [theme_id] => 51 [contents] => Disability awareness and equality issues are not part of initial medical training programs for doctors. The Public Foundation of Equal Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities has launched an accredited training program (in 2010) for health workers with the support of the Institute for Basic and Continuing Education of Health Workers. The training programme includes communication development between non-disabled and disabled people, to guarantee equal opportunities for patients with special needs in the health service. [update_date] => 2017-06-20 16:28:02 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Training for health workers regarding needs of disabled persons [url] => http://fszk.hu/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/k%C3%A9pz%C3%A9si-felh%C3%ADv%C3%A1s.pdf ) ) ) [52] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H5. Training for engineers [theme_slug] => h5-training-for-engineers [theme_id] => 52 [contents] => Several Engineering Faculties have courses on accessibility (e.g. Budapest University of Engineering). [update_date] => 2017-06-20 16:33:06 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Budapest University of Engineering course on accessibility (in Hungarian) [url] => http://www.felnottkepzes.bme.hu/kepzes.php?kpzs_id=195 ) ) ) [53] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H6. International development aid [theme_slug] => h6-international-development-aid [theme_id] => 53 [contents] => Disability mainstreaming is not specifically identified in official programmes of international development aid. [update_date] => 2017-06-20 16:31:35 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Ministry of Foreign Affairs (in Hungarian) - articles on international development policy [url] => http://nefe.kormany.hu/megjelent-a-nemzetkozi-fejlesztesi-egyuttmukodesrol-nefe-es-a-humanitarius-segitsegnyujtasrol-szolo-kulonszam ) ) ) ) ) ) )