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FYR Macedonia

A. UN Convention status

A1. Ratification or conclusion of the UN Convention

Macedonia signed CRPD on 30 March 2007. The Convention was ratified on 5 December 2011.

Update date: Fri, 2012-06-01

A2. Ratification or accession to the Optional Protocol

Macedonia signed the Optional Protocol on 29 August 2009. The Optional Protocol was ratified on 05 December 2011

Update date: Fri, 2012-06-01

A3. Declarations, Reservations and Objections

Macedonia made no reservations or declarations on signing and ratification of the CRPD and its Optional Protocol.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-06-01

A4. Comprehensive review

Macedonia does not have an official baseline report or comprehensive review of disability policy, although disability as an issue has been included in other documents and initiatives. In 2007 a National report about the disability was prepared. In 2010 the Ministry for Social and Labour Policy (MLSP) revised the National strategy for equalization of opportunities for people with disabilities. Disability issue became one of the topics of the National strategy for social exclusion.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-07-27

A5. Focal point

Macedonia has not yet chosen its monitoring focal point. The section for equal opportunities in the Ministry of Labor and Social Policy will most likely undertake this role.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-06-01

A6. Coordination mechanism

Macedonia has not yet established a coordination mechanism for implementation of the CRPD. Initial steps have been taken towards establishing of National Coordinating Body.

Update date: Fri, 2012-06-01

A7. Independent mechanism

Macedonia has not yet established an independent monitoring mechanism for the CRPD. However, there are two institutions dealing with disability issues and discrimination and one or both may serve in this role. The Anti-Discrimination Law provided for establishment of the Commission on Protection against Discrimination in 2011. Some functions concerning discrimination fall within the mandate of the Ombudsman's office, which has a special Department for protection from discrimination of children and disabled people. The relations between the Ombudsman and the Commission are regulated in the Anti-discrimination law in a form of mutual cooperation.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-06-01

A8. Official reporting

The initial state report was due in January 2014, finalised in July 2014 and deposited at the UN on 3 Oct 2014.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2015-03-03

A9. Shadow reporting

No shadow report has been submitted to the UN Committee in parallel to the initial state report. Civil society organisations made preparations for this task.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2015-03-11

B. General legal framework

B1. Anti-discrimination legislation

Article 1 of the Macedonian Constitution defines the State as a social welfare state. Article 54 defines the basis of protection from discrimination 'on grounds of sex, race, colour of skin, language, religion, national or social origin, property or social status' but does not include disability as a possible ground for discrimination. The Law on labour prohibits discrimination on the ground of disability and Law for employment of people with disabilities (as Lex Specialis) provides incentives and specific benefits for employers of people with disability. The disability anti-discrimination framework is based on the Law for prohibition and protection from discrimination, where disability is one of the grounds, and where the construction and maintenance of inaccessible buildings is considered as discrimination.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-07-27

B2. Recognition of legal capacity

According to Macedonian legislation, a person can be deprived of legal capacity only with Court litigation. However, there are anomalies. For example, Article 4 of the Law on employment of people with disability states that any disabled worker who seeks a management position should obtain a pass from the special Commission confirming his/her capabilities for managing (without any Court procedure).

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-07-27

B3. Accessibility of voting and elections

The Law on elections declares equal opportunities for citizens with disabilities and provides opportunities for 'ill and incapable' voters to request to vote from home. People with disabilities in hospitals and residential institutions are excluded from this opportunity. There is no quota for the political parties to include people with disabilities on their voting lists (there is a quota of 30% for women).

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-07-27

B4. Official recognition of sign language

Sign language has been officially recognised in Macedonia since the Law on the use of sign language in 2009. This Law, besides official recognition of right of people with hearing impairment, obliges every Court, administrative and educational institution to provide sign langugage interpretators for deaf people who need them. Additionally, the national broadcasting companies are obliged to provide a certain percentage of broadcast programmes in sign language.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-06-01

B5. National disability strategy and action plan

We do not yet have information for this item

Update date: Tue, 2013-08-13

C. Accessibility

C1. Transport accessibility

The design of parking places for people with disability is regulated by the Law for traffic security, where it is stipulated that 3-5% of the total number of parking places should be provided for the vehicles of people with disability. The Standards for parking places for people with disability are defined in the Rulebook for ensuring free access, movement, dwelling and work of people with disabilities.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-07-27

C2. Built environment accessibility

Accessibility for the people with disability is provided by several legal regulations. The Construction Law (Article 11) obliges all public and residential buildings to be accessible for people with disabilities. Every condominium with more then 10 apartments must have one apartment completely accessible for people with disabilities. Article 34 of the Law provides that access to and into the building is not considered as construction (effectively, decreased administrative procedures and technical requirements). The same requirements apply to historical and cultural heritage buildings. The Law on urban planning has two by-laws that closely define the standards and measures of accessibility for people with disability. Some segments of accessibility and availability for people with disability are regulated by the Law on housing and Law on local self-government.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-07-27

C3. ICT and Web accessibility

In 2011, the Government of Macedonia adopted the National Strategy for e-inclusion with a main priority for 'improvement of the internet availability for people with disabilities'. This includes a project initiative in 2012 to begin drafting a system of speech synthesis for blind users in the Macedonian language, in co-operation between the Ministry for Information Society and Administration, the Association of the Blind and the Faculty of Information Technologies and Computer Engineering. The Ministry hosts a web portal specifically targeted for disabled people, although it is not fully accessible to blind people.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-07-27

D. Independent living

D1. Choice of living arrangements

e is no legislation directly regulating this issue for people with disabilities. According to the Law on Social Protection (Article 30), the right to home care and assistance is provided to elderly persons, persons with physical disabilities and with moderate and severe mental disabilities who are unable to care for themselves. Persons in the above categories are entitled to live within small group homes where possible (Article 39), to independent living with support (Article 40), and to accommodation in institutions for social protection (Article 43). Parents of children with disabilities must have access to appropriate training to enable them and their children to lead the fullest possible lives in society. An important change in the law related to the provision of home care and assistance provides children with physical and mental disabilities with the right to be placed in foster families. The process of reintegrating children within their biological families is based on the right to live within a family. The Ministry of Labour and Social Policy provides support to families through day-care centres for persons with disabilities, clubs for adults with disabilities, and through the provision of help and care to people with disabilities in their homes, as is stated in the Law. There is no other regulation regarding living arrangements of people with disabilities and no support for house adaptations for people with disabilities.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-07-27

D2. De-institutionalisation

There are two large institutions in the Republic of Macedonia for the accommodation and care of persons under 26 years with mental disabilities: The Special Institute of Demir Kapija for children and adults with disabilities and the Special Institute of Banja Bansko – Strumica which accommodates persons with physical disabilities as well as a number of persons with multiple disabilities. The deinstitutionalization process started in 2000 with the first form of fostering families for children from the institutions. The process was based on International Aid, which has ended. In 2008 when the Government enacted the National Strategy for Deinstitutionalization of the System of Social Protection (2008-2018) for people with intellectual disabilities, in cooperation with CSOs, the first Community-Based Supported Housing services were established. The largest institution (Demir Kapija) has decreased its number of clients from more than 500 to around 200. In a process of public private cooperation, according to the Law for social protection, the services are run by the CSO 'Message' Negotino with support from the Government through MLSP and International Aid. Care for children with disabilities in foster families is another form of deinstitutionalization developed in a limited number of locations.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-07-27

D3. Quality of social services

The social services are regulated within the Law for Social Protection. However, there is no regulatory mechanism of standards for social services license, monitoring and evaluation on local or national level. The Ministry of Labour and Social Policy performs supervisory inspections of institutions though the implementation and enforcement of laws and regulations in the field of social protection. Supervision is conducted by professionals trained in areas similar to the activities of the institutions for social protection. No processes are currently in place for the independent accreditation of social and healthcare facilities.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-07-27

D4. Provision of assistive devices at home

The Law for health protection and the Law for health insurance regulate the provision of assistive devices. The Fund for health insurance has defined the list of the assistive equipment (prostheses, orthoses, crutches, wheelchairs, orthopaedic shoes, hearing aids, white cane, antidecubital items, etc). They are all determined by time of use, but are free for children with disability, while adults with disability have to contribute. The amount amount of contribution ranges from 10-20%. Highly technical appliances are not included in this list.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-07-27

D5. Availability of personal assistance schemes

Personal assistance (as defined by the Independent Living movement in Europe) is not regulated in Macedonia. Instead, support services for people with disability are provided in day-care centres supported by the Ministry for Labour and Social Policy, which lack the legislative regulation. IThere are 19 day-care centres for children with disabilities (although data from the Institute for Social Affairs show that they often accept those older than 18 years). A number of day-care centres are managed by non-governmental organizations. The Law for social protection does provide a social benefit 'The right to a financial allowance for help and care by another person'. This allowance ranges from 3,702 MKD (49 euros) to 4,185 MKD (68 euros). The financial benefit available to a foster family per child is 12,500 MKD (around 200 Euros) per month, followed by the right for one of the foster parents if he/ she is unemployed to receive a pension benefit for the time spent fostering the child with disability.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-07-27

D6. Income maintenance

Disability status is an eligibility criterion for a number of welfare benefits: monthly integration allowances for transport of people with mobility problems, for medication and diet food, for communication, for access to information and for accessible information, for training. All benefits are conditional upon a disability assessment of the individual, which reflects their medical condition rather than levels of functioning. In 2011, the Government adopted changes in the Law for Social protection which will allow, from June 2012, people with 100% visual impairment and people with 100% physical disability to receive so-called 'Mobile allowance' of 7,000 MKD (around 120 euros).

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-07-27

D7. Additional costs

No additional costs for disability are provided for through the laws. Some people with disability do not pay road tolls or parking. The MLSP covers the expenses for diapers for children and older people with disability with incontinence, while some of the Municipalities cover transport costs for buses for people with disability in capital city.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-07-27

D8. Retirement income

For the retirement, in terms of age and years of work service for people with disability, benefits are provided by the State. According to the Law on Pension and Disability Insurance people with disabilities are entitled to a beneficial working year (i.e. 12 months of working life span is counted as 15 months of working service). In addition to this, people with disabilities, as employees with complete working life span, are entitled to retire 5 years early in pension, irrespective of gender. There is the possibility for person with disability to receive a disability pension, if he/she fulfils the condition of having 15 years of working life span.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-07-27

E. Education

E1. Special schools

There are 45 special classes, part of the primary schools, with 993 pupils and 4 special secondary schools with 307 students. The curriculum they offer is outdated and graduate students cannot enrol in the open market with the knowledge they got. As is case with other areas, there is a lack of data for this target group.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-07-27

E2. Mainstream schools

The Macedonian Constitution (Art. 44) states that 'Everyone has the right to education'. Education is available to everyone under equal conditions, primary and secondary education is obligatory and free of charge, provided by the State. An important aspect of above mentioned Article for people with disability is the Law for primary education which provides for primary education to be organized in the hospitals and health institutions. In the Law for secondary education, in the list for discrimination prohibition, disability is not included as a ground but the inclusion of people with disability is mentioned in several provision. Separate classrooms are provided by the Law for pupil and student standard with a ratio of disabled and non-disabled students. Despite a lack of data, the Law obligates primary and secondary schools, as well as kindergartens, to engage a special educator (defectologist) to work with pupils and students with disabilities.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-07-27

E3. Sign language and Braille in school

There are no provisions for learning Braille or sign language in mainstream schools. Braille and sign language are taught only in the special secondary schools for blind and deaf students respectively. With the Law for sign language kindergartens, primary and secondary schools are obliged to provide sign language interpreters for pupils with hearing impairments.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-07-27

E4. Vocational training

The vocational training for people with disability is very limited and dated. Disability is not included within the Law for Vocational Education and Training, implemented by the Center for vocational education and training, which is public service institution. The Law for social protection regulates vocational training. The reception centres and institutions for children and juveniles with educational and social difficulties include reception centres for care of educationally neglected children and juveniles. These institutions provide housing, education and vocational training. The law for employment of people with disabilities also regulates vocational training for people with disability where the Institutions for professional rehabilitation are institutions for vocational training and employment of persons with limited working abilities. These are funded through the Special fund for employment of people with disability. The number of vocations in the Centres for training and rehabilitation is limited, mainly in manufacturing (such as sewing, packings, envelope sticking etc.).

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-07-27

E5. Higher education

In the Law for higher education provides certain benefits for students with disabilities, such as no fee scholarships (Article 87), free transport to school, free accommodation and meals in the student dormitory (Article 14). The Article 150 mentions the need for accessibility, but it is not obligatory and it is left to Universities to determine such need.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-07-27

F. Employment

F1. Non-discrimination in employment

According to the Macedonian Constitution (Article 32) everyone has the right to work without any discrimination. People with disabilities are not mentioned specifically, which means that they have the right to work equally to the others. The Labour law does include disability, along with other grounds, as a basis for non-discrimination (Article 6). Macedonian labour law in the basis for discrimination, besides others includes the disability as ground for discrimination (Article 6). Тhe Law on Prevention and Protection against Discrimination prohibits all forms of discrimination committed by natural and legal persons in both the public and the private sector, inter alia, in the area of work and labour relations (Article 4). Of special relevance for the people with disabilities is Article 5 paragraph 1 point 12 and Article 8 paragraph 2, which stipulates the provision of reasonable accommodation. The Law stipulates that 'adjustment of the infrastructure and the services is adopting appropriate measures required in some particular case, on order to provide to the person with intellectual and body disability, the access, the participation and advancing in the labour process, unless these measures impose disproportionate encumbrance to the employer'. Moreover, the Law does not define the term 'appropriate measures' regarding persons with disability, except for clarifying that they are individualised, or needed in the given case.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-04-01

F2. Public employment services

The Government is responsible for promoting the employment of people with disabilities and receives support from the European Social Funds for the modernisation of public employment services at the national, regional, and local level. The main agency of central government in this area is the Employment Service Agency of Republic of Macedonia (which also publishes statistics concerning unemployed people with disabilities). In 2009 steps were taken to enact a quota system for the employment of people with disabilities. The Law was prepared but it was not enacted due to resistance from international business and shelted companies.

Law on civil servants and other laws and by-laws that regulate the employment in the public sector do not mention the issue of disability. Even more, they have 'neutral' provisions which place people with disability in a disadvantaged position, such as the requirement of a certificate of good general health condition. Other laws in this field do not mention people with disabilities.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2016-06-09

F3. Workplace adaptations

According to the Law for employment of people with disability, employers can claim funds from the Governmental Special Funds in an amount up to 1,500 Euros for workplace adaptation according the needs of a single employee with disability. The employer is responsible for adaptations in the workplace.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-06-08

F4. Financial incentives

According to the Law for employment of people with disabilities, the state exempts sheltered companies from pension and health contributions for all its employees (with or without disabilities). In addition, sheltered companies can receive more than 5,000 Euros per employed person with disability for a period of three years. In a period of five years, they can request around 40,000 Euros for equipment advancement. Other companies can request return of the pension and health contribution only for the employed person with disability. The public sector is excluded from these financial incentives.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-07-27

G. Statistics and data collection

G1. Official research

There is no official research on data for people with disabilities in Macedonia. According to WHO, Macedonia as a country in development is presumed to have 10% of its population with some kind of disability. MLSP provided data in 2009, and there are over 12,000 beneficiaries of social disability benefits, which is well below the figures expected. The Employment Service Agency also publishes statistics on people with disabilities who are registered unemployed. The State Statistical Office produces a number of reports including some references to disability (invalidity).

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-07-27

G2. Census data

A question of disability was first entered in the census questionnaire planned for 2011, which was suspended for political reasons. The State Census Commission is the responsible body of the State Statistical Office.

Links

Update date: Sat, 2012-06-09

G3. Labour Force Survey

Disability is calculated as a separate issue in the Labour survey. The rates for employment/unemployment are provided by National Agency for employment, Ministry for Labour and Social Policy etc. International institutions and domestic NGOs have also performed partial surveys (with inconsistent data).

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-07-27

G4. Disability equality indicators

There are no official disability equality indicators established in Macedonia.

Update date: Sat, 2012-06-09

H. Awareness and external action

H1. Awareness raising programs

Although no comprehensive awareness raising program exists, there are certain awareness raising actions. In 2009, the Ministry for Labour and Social Policy launched a small scale campaign. Since 2000, DPOs have occasionally launched specific campaigns (Poraka, Polio Plus). The Share-SEE project (Handicap International) has supported several local DPOs with capacity building training seminars.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-07-27

H2. Training for teachers

There is no formal training requirement in special education for mainstream teachers in Macedonia. Some introductory activity is undertaken by civil society organisations. The Pedagogical Institute of Macedonia has identified for some years the need for greater awareness and training for inclusive education amongst teachers (e.g. in studies supported by the European Training Foundation). There is a graduate course of study for Special Education teachers (who work in institutions and special schools but may advise as part of team in mainstream schools). Institute of Special Education and Rehabilitation also publishes the Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation.

Links

Update date: Sat, 2012-06-09

H3. Training for lawyers

There is no formal training on disability equality for legal professionals.

Update date: Fri, 2012-07-27

H4. Training for doctors

There is no formal training on disability equality for medical professionals.

Update date: Sat, 2012-06-09

H5. Training for engineers

A manual for accessibility was published in cooperation between civil society and the Faculty for Architecture in 2006. Occasional lectures on the subject universal design have been organized in the universities. The five-year curriculum for architect students does not include specific reference to disability access or inclusive design.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-07-27

H6. International development aid

Macedonia has been primarily a recipient, rather than a donor, of international aid. There are several programmes specifically targeting people with disability (e.g. in EU pre-accession (IPA) Regional Development Programmes and USAID Disability Strategy projects).

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-07-27

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                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => eu-member-states
                    [title] => EU Member States
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                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 2
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 28
                )

            [2] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 6
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                    [lft] => 4
                    [rgt] => 5
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => austria
                    [title] => Austria
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 5
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 0000-00-00 00:00:00
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                )

            [3] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 7
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 6
                    [rgt] => 7
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => belgium
                    [title] => Belgium
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 6
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [4] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 8
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 8
                    [rgt] => 9
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => bulgaria
                    [title] => Bulgaria
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 7
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [5] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 9
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 10
                    [rgt] => 11
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => croatia
                    [title] => Croatia
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 8
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [6] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 10
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                    [lft] => 12
                    [rgt] => 13
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => cyprus
                    [title] => Cyprus
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 9
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [7] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 11
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 14
                    [rgt] => 15
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => czech-republic
                    [title] => Czech Republic
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 10
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [8] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 12
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 16
                    [rgt] => 17
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => denmark
                    [title] => Denmark
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 11
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [9] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 13
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 18
                    [rgt] => 19
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => estonia
                    [title] => Estonia
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 12
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [10] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 14
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                    [lft] => 20
                    [rgt] => 21
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => finland
                    [title] => Finland
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 13
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [11] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 15
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 22
                    [rgt] => 23
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => france
                    [title] => France
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 14
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [12] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 16
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 24
                    [rgt] => 25
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => germany
                    [title] => Germany
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 15
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [13] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 17
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 26
                    [rgt] => 27
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => greece
                    [title] => Greece
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 16
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [14] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 18
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 28
                    [rgt] => 29
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => hungary
                    [title] => Hungary
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 17
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [15] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 19
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 30
                    [rgt] => 31
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => ireland
                    [title] => Ireland
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 18
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [16] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 20
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 32
                    [rgt] => 33
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => italy
                    [title] => Italy
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 19
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [17] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 21
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                    [lft] => 34
                    [rgt] => 35
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => latvia
                    [title] => Latvia
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 20
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [18] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 22
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 36
                    [rgt] => 37
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => lithuania
                    [title] => Lithuania
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 21
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [19] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 23
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 38
                    [rgt] => 39
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => luxembourg
                    [title] => Luxembourg
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 22
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [20] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 24
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 40
                    [rgt] => 41
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => malta
                    [title] => Malta
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 23
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [21] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 25
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 42
                    [rgt] => 43
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => netherlands
                    [title] => Netherlands
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 24
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [22] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 26
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 44
                    [rgt] => 45
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => poland
                    [title] => Poland
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 25
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [23] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 27
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 46
                    [rgt] => 47
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => portugal
                    [title] => Portugal
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 26
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [24] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 28
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 48
                    [rgt] => 49
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => romania
                    [title] => Romania
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 27
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [25] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 29
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 50
                    [rgt] => 51
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => slovakia
                    [title] => Slovakia
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 28
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [26] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 30
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 52
                    [rgt] => 53
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => slovenia
                    [title] => Slovenia
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 29
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [27] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 31
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 54
                    [rgt] => 55
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => spain
                    [title] => Spain
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 30
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [28] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 32
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                    [lft] => 56
                    [rgt] => 57
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => sweden
                    [title] => Sweden
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 31
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                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [29] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 33
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 58
                    [rgt] => 59
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => united-kingdom
                    [title] => United Kingdom
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 32
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [30] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 4
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                    [rgt] => 72
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => candidate-acceding-countries
                    [title] => Candidate / Acceding countries
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 3
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [31] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 34
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                    [lft] => 62
                    [rgt] => 63
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => fyr-macedonia
                    [title] => FYR Macedonia
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 33
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [32] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 35
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                    [lft] => 64
                    [rgt] => 65
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => iceland
                    [title] => Iceland
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 34
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [33] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 36
                    [parent_id] => 4
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                    [rgt] => 67
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => montenegro
                    [title] => Montenegro
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 35
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [34] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 37
                    [parent_id] => 4
                    [lft] => 68
                    [rgt] => 69
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => serbia
                    [title] => Serbia
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 36
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [35] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 38
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                    [lft] => 70
                    [rgt] => 71
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => turkey
                    [title] => Turkey
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 37
                    [state] => 1
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                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [36] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 5
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 73
                    [rgt] => 78
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => other-european-countries
                    [title] => Other European countries
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 4
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 2
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            [37] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 39
                    [parent_id] => 5
                    [lft] => 74
                    [rgt] => 75
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => liechtenstein
                    [title] => Liechtenstein
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 38
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [38] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 40
                    [parent_id] => 5
                    [lft] => 76
                    [rgt] => 77
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => norway
                    [title] => Norway
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 39
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
                )

        )

    [themes] => Array
        (
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                (
                    [id] => 2
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 1
                    [rgt] => 20
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => a-un-convention-status
                    [title] => A. UN Convention status
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 1
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 9
                )

            [1] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 3
                    [parent_id] => 2
                    [lft] => 2
                    [rgt] => 3
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a1-ratification-or-conclusion-of-the-un-convention
                    [title] => A1. Ratification or conclusion of the UN Convention
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 2
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 0000-00-00 00:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [2] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 4
                    [parent_id] => 2
                    [lft] => 4
                    [rgt] => 5
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a2-ratification-or-accession-to-the-optional-protocol
                    [title] => A2. Ratification or accession to the Optional Protocol
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 3
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 0000-00-00 00:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [3] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 5
                    [parent_id] => 2
                    [lft] => 6
                    [rgt] => 7
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a3-declarations-reservations-and-objections
                    [title] => A3. Declarations, Reservations and Objections
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 4
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 0000-00-00 00:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [4] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 6
                    [parent_id] => 2
                    [lft] => 8
                    [rgt] => 9
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a4-comprehensive-review
                    [title] => A4. Comprehensive review
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 5
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [5] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 7
                    [parent_id] => 2
                    [lft] => 10
                    [rgt] => 11
                    [level] => 2
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                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [47] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 49
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 94
                    [rgt] => 95
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h2-training-for-teachers
                    [title] => H2. Training for teachers
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 48
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [48] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 50
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 96
                    [rgt] => 97
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h3-training-for-lawyers
                    [title] => H3. Training for lawyers
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 49
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [49] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 51
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 98
                    [rgt] => 99
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h4-training-for-doctors
                    [title] => H4. Training for doctors
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 50
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [50] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 52
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 100
                    [rgt] => 101
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h5-training-for-engineers
                    [title] => H5. Training for engineers
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 51
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [51] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 53
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 102
                    [rgt] => 103
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h6-international-development-aid
                    [title] => H6. International development aid
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 52
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

        )

    [results] => Array
        (
            [34] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [parent] => Candidate / Acceding countries
                    [location] => FYR Macedonia
                    [location_id] => 34
                    [location_slug] => fyr-macedonia
                    [themes] => Array
                        (
                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A1. Ratification or conclusion of the UN Convention
                                    [theme_slug] => a1-ratification-or-conclusion-of-the-un-convention
                                    [theme_id] => 3
                                    [contents] => Macedonia signed CRPD on 30 March 2007. The Convention was ratified on 5 December 2011.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-06-01 10:32:55
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                        )

                                )

                            [4] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A2. Ratification or accession to the Optional Protocol
                                    [theme_slug] => a2-ratification-or-accession-to-the-optional-protocol
                                    [theme_id] => 4
                                    [contents] => Macedonia signed the Optional Protocol on 29 August 2009. The Optional Protocol was ratified on 05 December 2011
                                    [update_date] => 2012-06-01 10:33:13
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                        )

                                )

                            [5] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A3. Declarations, Reservations and Objections
                                    [theme_slug] => a3-declarations-reservations-and-objections
                                    [theme_id] => 5
                                    [contents] => Macedonia made no reservations or declarations on signing and ratification of the CRPD and its Optional Protocol.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-06-01 10:09:34
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => UNCRPD declarations and reservations
                                                    [url] => http://www.un.org/disabilities/default.asp?id=475
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [6] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A4. Comprehensive review
                                    [theme_slug] => a4-comprehensive-review
                                    [theme_id] => 6
                                    [contents] => Macedonia does not have an official baseline report or comprehensive review of disability policy, although disability as an issue has been included in other documents and initiatives. In 2007 a National report about the disability was prepared. In 2010 the Ministry for Social and Labour Policy (MLSP) revised the National strategy for equalization of opportunities for people with disabilities. Disability issue became one of the topics of the National strategy for social exclusion.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-07-27 10:20:58
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => National strategy for equalization of opportunities for people with disabilities
                                                    [url] => http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/FINALNA%20Revidirana%20Nacionalna%20Strategija.pdf
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => National strategy for social exclusion
                                                    [url] => http://www.un.org.mk/files/pdfs/about/SocialExclusion_Strategy_MK_final.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [7] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A5. Focal point
                                    [theme_slug] => a5-focal-point
                                    [theme_id] => 7
                                    [contents] => Macedonia has not yet chosen its monitoring focal point. The section for equal opportunities in the Ministry of Labor and Social Policy will most likely undertake this role.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-06-01 10:23:30
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Ministry of Labor and Social Policy, equal opportunities
                                                    [url] => http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/Sektor_za_Ednakvi_moznosti_ENG[1].pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [8] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A6. Coordination mechanism
                                    [theme_slug] => a6-coordination-mechanism
                                    [theme_id] => 8
                                    [contents] => Macedonia has not yet established a coordination mechanism for implementation of the CRPD. Initial steps have been taken towards establishing of National Coordinating Body.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-06-01 10:25:31
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                        )

                                )

                            [9] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A7. Independent mechanism
                                    [theme_slug] => a7-independent-mechanism
                                    [theme_id] => 9
                                    [contents] => Macedonia has not yet established an independent monitoring mechanism for the CRPD. However, there are two institutions dealing with disability issues and discrimination and one or both may serve in this role. The Anti-Discrimination Law provided for establishment of the Commission on Protection against Discrimination in 2011. Some functions concerning discrimination fall within the mandate of the Ombudsman's office, which has a special Department for protection from discrimination of children and disabled people. The relations between the Ombudsman and the Commission are regulated in the Anti-discrimination law in a form of mutual cooperation.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-06-01 10:30:00
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Commission on Protection against Discrimination
                                                    [url] => http://www.kzd.mk/mk
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Ombudsman's office
                                                    [url] => http://www.ombudsman.mk/EN/default.aspx
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [10] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A8. Official reporting
                                    [theme_slug] => a8-official-reporting
                                    [theme_id] => 10
                                    [contents] => The initial state report was due in January 2014, finalised in July 2014 and deposited at the UN on 3 Oct 2014.
                                    [update_date] => 2015-03-03 16:28:50
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => State reports to the UN Committee
                                                    [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=173&DocTypeID=29
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Link to all UN reporting cycle documentation:	
                                                    [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=173
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [11] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A9. Shadow reporting
                                    [theme_slug] => a9-shadow-reporting
                                    [theme_id] => 11
                                    [contents] => No shadow report has been submitted to the UN Committee in parallel to the initial state report. Civil society organisations made preparations for this task.
                                    [update_date] => 2015-03-11 12:48:29
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Civil society reports to the UN Committee
                                                    [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=173&DocTypeID=14
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [13] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => B. General legal framework
                                    [theme_title] => B1. Anti-discrimination legislation
                                    [theme_slug] => b1-anti-discrimination-legislation
                                    [theme_id] => 13
                                    [contents] => Article 1 of the Macedonian Constitution defines the State as a social welfare state. Article 54 defines the basis of protection from discrimination 'on grounds of sex, race, colour of skin, language, religion, national or social origin, property or social status' but does not include disability as a possible ground for discrimination. The Law on labour prohibits discrimination on the ground of disability and Law for employment of people with disabilities (as Lex Specialis) provides incentives and specific benefits for employers of people with disability. The disability anti-discrimination framework is based on the Law for prohibition and protection from discrimination, where disability is one of the grounds, and where the construction and maintenance of inaccessible buildings is considered as discrimination.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-07-27 10:23:45
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia
                                                    [url] => http://www.sobranie.mk/en/default.asp?ItemID=9F7452BF44EE814B8DB897C1858B71FF
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law for prohibition and protection from discrimination
                                                    [url] => http://www.kzd.mk/phocadownload/zakon-za-sprecuvanje-i-zastita-od-diskriminacija.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [14] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => B. General legal framework
                                    [theme_title] => B2. Recognition of legal capacity
                                    [theme_slug] => b2-recognition-of-legal-capacity
                                    [theme_id] => 14
                                    [contents] => According to Macedonian legislation, a person can be deprived of legal capacity only with Court litigation. However, there are anomalies. For example, Article 4 of the Law on employment of people with disability states that any disabled worker who seeks a management position should obtain a pass from the special Commission confirming his/her capabilities for managing (without any Court procedure).
                                    [update_date] => 2012-07-27 10:25:08
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law on employment of people with disability
                                                    [url] => http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/vrabotuvanje_invalidni_osnoven.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [15] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => B. General legal framework
                                    [theme_title] => B3. Accessibility of voting and elections
                                    [theme_slug] => b3-accessibility-of-voting-and-elections
                                    [theme_id] => 15
                                    [contents] => The Law on elections declares equal opportunities for citizens with disabilities and provides opportunities for 'ill and incapable' voters to request to vote from home. People with disabilities in hospitals and residential institutions are excluded from this opportunity. There is no quota for the political parties to include people with disabilities on their voting lists (there is a quota of 30% for women).
                                    [update_date] => 2012-07-27 10:25:56
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law on elections
                                                    [url] => www.sobranie.mk/WBStorage/Files/Izboren_zakonik0.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [16] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => B. General legal framework
                                    [theme_title] => B4. Official recognition of sign language
                                    [theme_slug] => b4-official-recognition-of-sign-language
                                    [theme_id] => 16
                                    [contents] => Sign language has been officially recognised in Macedonia since the Law on the use of sign language in 2009. This Law, besides official recognition of right of people with hearing impairment, obliges every Court, administrative and educational institution to provide sign langugage interpretators for deaf people who need them. Additionally, the national broadcasting companies are obliged to provide a certain percentage of broadcast programmes in sign language.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-06-01 12:15:41
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law on the use of sign language
                                                    [url] => http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/znakoven%20jazik.doc
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [17] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => B. General legal framework
                                    [theme_title] => B5. National disability strategy and action plan
                                    [theme_slug] => b5-national-disability-strategy-and-action-plan
                                    [theme_id] => 17
                                    [contents] => We do not yet have information for this item
                                    [update_date] => 2013-08-13 10:30:46
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                        )

                                )

                            [19] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => C. Accessibility
                                    [theme_title] => C1. Transport accessibility
                                    [theme_slug] => c1-transport-accessibility
                                    [theme_id] => 19
                                    [contents] => The design of parking places for people with disability is regulated by the Law for traffic security, where it is stipulated that 3-5% of the total number of parking places should be provided for the vehicles of people with disability. The Standards for parking places for people with disability are defined in the Rulebook for ensuring free access, movement, dwelling and work of people with disabilities.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-07-27 10:27:06
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law for traffic security
                                                    [url] => http://mvr.gov.mk/Uploads/zakon%20za%20bezbednost%20na%20soobrakajot%20na%20patistata.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [20] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => C. Accessibility
                                    [theme_title] => C2. Built environment accessibility
                                    [theme_slug] => c2-built-environment-accessibility
                                    [theme_id] => 20
                                    [contents] => Accessibility for the people with disability is provided by several legal regulations. The Construction Law (Article 11) obliges all public and residential buildings to be accessible for people with disabilities. Every condominium with more then 10 apartments must have one apartment completely accessible for people with disabilities. Article 34 of the Law provides that access to and into the building is not considered as construction (effectively, decreased administrative procedures and technical requirements). The same requirements apply to historical and cultural heritage buildings. The Law on urban planning has two by-laws that closely define the standards and measures of accessibility for people with disability. Some segments of accessibility and availability for people with disability are regulated by the Law on housing and Law on local self-government.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-07-27 10:29:00
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Contruction Law
                                                    [url] => http://www.mtc.gov.mk/new_site/images/storija_doc/115/03-05-2011/12.pdf
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law on urban planing
                                                    [url] => http://www.moepp.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/zakonprostorno.pdf
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law on housing 
                                                    [url] => http://www.mtc.gov.mk/new_site/images/storija_doc/115/ZAKON_ZA_DOMUVAWE.pdf
                                                )

                                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law on local self-government
                                                    [url] => http://www.igu.gov.mk/files/pdf/lokalna_samouprava/zakoni/zakon_za_lokalnata_samouprava.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [21] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => C. Accessibility
                                    [theme_title] => C3. ICT and Web accessibility
                                    [theme_slug] => c3-ict-and-web-accessibility
                                    [theme_id] => 21
                                    [contents] => In 2011, the Government of Macedonia adopted the National Strategy for e-inclusion with a main priority for 'improvement of the internet availability for people with disabilities'. This includes a project initiative in 2012 to begin drafting a system of speech synthesis for blind users in the Macedonian language, in co-operation between the Ministry for Information Society and Administration, the Association of the Blind and the Faculty of Information Technologies and Computer Engineering. The Ministry hosts a web portal specifically targeted for disabled people, although it is not fully accessible to blind people.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-07-27 10:29:44
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => National Strategy for e-inclusion 
                                                    [url] => http://www.mio.gov.mk/files/pdf/dokumenti/Strategija_za_e-vklucuvanje.pdf
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Ministry website 
                                                    [url] => http://www.sakamznammozam.gov.mk/
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Announcement of speech synthesis project 
                                                    [url] => http://mioa.gov.mk/?q=node/2728
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [23] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => D. Independent living
                                    [theme_title] => D1. Choice of living arrangements
                                    [theme_slug] => d1-choice-of-living-arrangements
                                    [theme_id] => 23
                                    [contents] => e is no legislation directly regulating this issue for people with disabilities. According to the Law on Social Protection (Article 30), the right to home care and assistance is provided to elderly persons, persons with physical disabilities and with moderate and severe mental disabilities who are unable to care for themselves. Persons in the above categories are entitled to live within small group homes where possible (Article 39), to independent living with support (Article 40), and to accommodation in institutions for social protection (Article 43). Parents of children with disabilities must have access to appropriate training to enable them and their children to lead the fullest possible lives in society. An important change in the law related to the provision of home care and assistance provides children with physical and mental disabilities with the right to be placed in foster families. The process of reintegrating children within their biological families is based on the right to live within a family. The Ministry of Labour and Social Policy provides support to families through day-care centres for persons with disabilities, clubs for adults with disabilities, and through the provision of help and care to people with disabilities in their homes, as is stated in the Law. There is no other regulation regarding living arrangements of people with disabilities and no support for house adaptations for people with disabilities.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-07-27 10:30:30
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law on Social Protection
                                                    [url] => http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/precisten_soc_zastita.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [24] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => D. Independent living
                                    [theme_title] => D2. De-institutionalisation
                                    [theme_slug] => d2-de-institutionalisation
                                    [theme_id] => 24
                                    [contents] => There are two large institutions in the Republic of Macedonia for the accommodation and care of persons under 26 years with mental disabilities: The Special Institute of Demir Kapija for children and adults with disabilities and the Special Institute of Banja Bansko – Strumica which accommodates persons with physical disabilities as well as a number of persons with multiple disabilities. The deinstitutionalization process started in 2000 with the first form of fostering families for children from the institutions. The process was based on International Aid, which has ended. In 2008 when the Government enacted the National Strategy for Deinstitutionalization of the System of Social Protection (2008-2018) for people with intellectual disabilities, in cooperation with CSOs, the first Community-Based Supported Housing services were established. The largest institution (Demir Kapija) has decreased its number of clients from more than 500 to around 200. In a process of public private cooperation, according to the Law for social protection, the services are run by the CSO 'Message' Negotino with support from the Government through MLSP and International Aid. Care for children with disabilities in foster families is another form of deinstitutionalization developed in a limited number of locations.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-07-27 10:33:33
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => National Strategy for Deinstitutionalization
                                                    [url] => http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/Nacionalna%20Strategija%20za%20deinstitucionalizacija%20_2008-2018_%20_2_.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [25] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => D. Independent living
                                    [theme_title] => D3. Quality of social services
                                    [theme_slug] => d3-quality-of-social-services
                                    [theme_id] => 25
                                    [contents] => The social services are regulated within the Law for Social Protection. However, there is no regulatory mechanism of standards for social services license, monitoring and evaluation on local or national level. The Ministry of Labour and Social Policy performs supervisory inspections of institutions  though the implementation and enforcement of laws and regulations in the field of social protection. Supervision is conducted by professionals trained in areas similar to the activities of the institutions for social protection. No processes are currently in place for the independent accreditation of social and healthcare facilities.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-07-27 10:32:15
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law for Social Protection
                                                    [url] => http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/precisten_soc_zastita.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [26] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => D. Independent living
                                    [theme_title] => D4. Provision of assistive devices at home
                                    [theme_slug] => d4-provision-of-assistive-devices-at-home
                                    [theme_id] => 26
                                    [contents] => The Law for health protection and the Law for health insurance regulate the provision of assistive devices. The Fund for health insurance has defined the list of the assistive equipment (prostheses, orthoses, crutches, wheelchairs, orthopaedic shoes, hearing aids, white cane, antidecubital items, etc). They are all determined by time of use, but are free for children with disability, while adults with disability have to contribute. The amount amount of contribution ranges from 10-20%. Highly technical appliances are not included in this list.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-07-27 10:36:00
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law for health protection
                                                    [url] => http://www.fzo.org.mk/WBStorage/Files/ZAKON%20ZA%20ZDRAVSTVENATA%20ZASTITA%2043%20od%2029.03.2012.pdf
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law for health insurance
                                                    [url] => http://www.fzo.org.mk/WBStorage/Files/ZAKON_ZA_ZDRAVSTVENOTO_OSIGURUVANE_Precisten_tekst_19_od_2011.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [27] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => D. Independent living
                                    [theme_title] => D5. Availability of personal assistance schemes
                                    [theme_slug] => d5-availability-of-personal-assistance-schemes
                                    [theme_id] => 27
                                    [contents] => Personal assistance (as defined by the Independent Living movement in Europe) is not regulated in Macedonia. Instead, support services for people with disability are provided in day-care centres supported by the Ministry for Labour and Social Policy, which lack the legislative regulation. IThere are 19 day-care centres for children with disabilities (although data from the Institute for Social Affairs show that they often accept those older than 18 years). A number of day-care centres are managed by non-governmental organizations. The Law for social protection does provide a social benefit 'The right to a financial allowance for help and care by another person'. This allowance ranges from 3,702 MKD (49 euros) to 4,185 MKD (68 euros). The financial benefit available to a foster family per child is 12,500 MKD (around 200 Euros) per month, followed by the right for one of the foster parents if he/ she is unemployed to receive a pension benefit for the time spent fostering the child with disability.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-07-27 10:37:12
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law for Social Protection
                                                    [url] => http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/precisten_soc_zastita.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [28] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => D. Independent living
                                    [theme_title] => D6. Income maintenance
                                    [theme_slug] => d6-income-maintenance
                                    [theme_id] => 28
                                    [contents] => Disability status is an eligibility criterion for a number of welfare benefits: monthly integration allowances for transport of people with mobility problems, for medication and diet food, for communication, for access to information and for accessible information, for training. All benefits are conditional upon a disability assessment of the individual, which reflects their medical condition rather than levels of functioning. In 2011, the Government adopted changes in the Law for Social protection which will allow, from June 2012, people with 100% visual impairment and people with 100% physical disability to receive so-called 'Mobile allowance' of 7,000 MKD (around 120 euros).
                                    [update_date] => 2012-07-27 10:38:07
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law for Social Protection
                                                    [url] => http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/precisten_soc_zastita.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [29] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => D. Independent living
                                    [theme_title] => D7. Additional costs
                                    [theme_slug] => d7-additional-costs
                                    [theme_id] => 29
                                    [contents] => No additional costs for disability are provided for through the laws. Some people with disability do not pay road tolls or parking. The MLSP covers the expenses for diapers for children and older people with disability with incontinence, while some of the Municipalities cover transport costs for buses for people with disability in capital city.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-07-27 10:39:34
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Ministry for Transport and Communications
                                                    [url] => http://mtc.gov.mk/new_site/en/
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law for Social Protection
                                                    [url] => http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/precisten_soc_zastita.pdf
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Official portal of City of Skopje
                                                    [url] => http://www.skopje.gov.mk/ShowAnnouncements.aspx?ItemID=4759&mid=482&tabId=1&tabindex=0
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [30] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => D. Independent living
                                    [theme_title] => D8. Retirement income
                                    [theme_slug] => d8-retirement-income
                                    [theme_id] => 30
                                    [contents] => For the retirement, in terms of age and years of work service for people with disability, benefits are provided by the State. According to the Law on Pension and Disability Insurance people with disabilities are entitled to a beneficial working year (i.e. 12 months of working life span is counted as 15 months of working service). In addition to this, people with disabilities, as employees with complete working life span, are entitled to retire 5 years early in pension, irrespective of gender. There is the possibility for person with disability to receive a disability pension, if he/she fulfils the condition of having 15 years of working life span.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-07-27 10:40:20
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law on Pension and Disability Insurance
                                                    [url] => http://www.sfid.mk/comp_includes/webdata/documents/Zakon%20za%20penziskoto%20i%20invalidakoto%20osiguruvanje.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [32] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => E. Education
                                    [theme_title] => E1. Special schools
                                    [theme_slug] => e1-special-schools
                                    [theme_id] => 32
                                    [contents] => There are 45 special classes, part of the primary schools, with 993 pupils and 4 special secondary schools with 307 students. The curriculum they offer is outdated and graduate students cannot enrol in the open market with the knowledge they got. As is case with other areas, there is a lack of data for this target group.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-07-27 10:41:21
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Analysis of  primary and secondary education in 2007/8
                                                    [url] => http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/Rodova%20analiza%20za%20osnovnoto,%20srednoto%20i%20viskoto%20obrazovanie.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [33] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => E. Education
                                    [theme_title] => E2. Mainstream schools
                                    [theme_slug] => e2-mainstream-schools
                                    [theme_id] => 33
                                    [contents] => The Macedonian Constitution (Art. 44) states that 'Everyone has the right to education'. Education is available to everyone under equal conditions, primary and secondary education is obligatory and free of charge, provided by the State. An important aspect of above mentioned Article for people with disability is the Law for primary education which provides for primary education to be organized in the hospitals and health institutions. In the Law for secondary education, in the list for discrimination prohibition, disability is not included as a ground but the inclusion of people with disability is mentioned in several provision. Separate classrooms are provided by the Law for pupil and student standard with a ratio of disabled and non-disabled students. Despite a lack of data, the Law obligates primary and secondary schools, as well as kindergartens, to engage a special educator (defectologist) to work with pupils and students with disabilities.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-07-27 10:42:27
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law for primary education
                                                    [url] => http://www.mon.gov.mk/download_mk/Documents/Zakoni/zakon+za+osnovnoto+obrazovanie.pdf
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law for secondary education
                                                    [url] => http://www.mon.gov.mk/download_mk/Konkurs+Smestuvanje+2008_09/Zakon%20za%20ucenickiot%20i%20studentskiot%20standard.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [34] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => E. Education
                                    [theme_title] => E3. Sign language and Braille in school
                                    [theme_slug] => e3-sign-language-and-braille-in-school
                                    [theme_id] => 34
                                    [contents] => There are no provisions for learning Braille or sign language in mainstream schools. Braille and sign language are taught only in the special secondary schools for blind and deaf students respectively. With the Law for sign language kindergartens, primary and secondary schools are obliged to provide sign language interpreters for pupils with hearing impairments.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-07-27 10:43:38
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law on the use of sign language
                                                    [url] => http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/znakoven%20jazik.doc
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [35] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => E. Education
                                    [theme_title] => E4. Vocational training
                                    [theme_slug] => e4-vocational-training
                                    [theme_id] => 35
                                    [contents] => The vocational training for people with disability is very limited and dated. Disability is not included within the Law for Vocational Education and Training, implemented by the Center for vocational education and training, which is public service institution. The Law for social protection regulates vocational training. The reception centres and institutions for children and juveniles with educational and social difficulties include reception centres for care of educationally neglected children and juveniles. These institutions provide housing, education and vocational training. The law for employment of people with disabilities also regulates vocational training for people with disability where the Institutions for professional rehabilitation are institutions for vocational training and employment of persons with limited working abilities. These are funded through the Special fund for employment of people with disability. The number of vocations in the Centres for training and rehabilitation is limited, mainly in manufacturing (such as sewing, packings, envelope sticking etc.).
                                    [update_date] => 2012-07-27 10:44:46
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law for Vocational Education and Training 
                                                    [url] => http://www.csoo.edu.mk/eng/images/stories/zakon_za_strucno_obrazovanie_i_obuka.pdf
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law for employment of people with disabilities
                                                    [url] => http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/vrabotuvanje_invalidni.doc
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law for Social Protection
                                                    [url] => http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/precisten_soc_zastita.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [36] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => E. Education
                                    [theme_title] => E5. Higher education
                                    [theme_slug] => e5-higher-education
                                    [theme_id] => 36
                                    [contents] => In the Law for higher education provides certain benefits for students with disabilities, such as no fee scholarships (Article 87), free transport to school, free accommodation and meals in the student dormitory (Article 14). The Article 150 mentions the need for accessibility, but it is not obligatory and it is left to Universities to determine such need.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-07-27 10:46:21
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law for higher education
                                                    [url] => http://dpi.mon.gov.mk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3:2010-09-07-09-15-51&catid=11:2010-08-24-11-46-39&Itemid=23
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Ministry for education and science of Macedonia
                                                    [url] => http://mon.gov.mk/novosti/702-zakonvisoko
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [38] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => F. Employment
                                    [theme_title] => F1. Non-discrimination in employment
                                    [theme_slug] => f1-non-discrimination-in-employment
                                    [theme_id] => 38
                                    [contents] => According to the Macedonian Constitution (Article 32) everyone has the right to work without any discrimination. People with disabilities are not mentioned specifically, which means that they have the right to work equally to the others. The Labour law does include disability, along with other grounds, as a basis for non-discrimination (Article 6). Macedonian labour law in the basis for discrimination, besides others includes the disability as ground for discrimination (Article 6). Тhe Law on Prevention and Protection against Discrimination prohibits all forms of discrimination committed by natural and legal persons in both the public and the private sector, inter alia, in the area of work and labour relations (Article 4). Of special relevance for the people with disabilities is Article 5 paragraph 1 point 12 and Article 8 paragraph 2, which stipulates the provision of reasonable accommodation. The Law stipulates that 'adjustment of the infrastructure and the services is adopting appropriate measures required in some particular case, on order to provide to the person with intellectual and body disability, the access, the participation and advancing in the labour process, unless these measures impose disproportionate encumbrance to the employer'. Moreover, the Law does not define the term 'appropriate measures' regarding persons with disability, except for clarifying that they are individualised, or needed in the given case.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-04-01 18:07:17
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia
                                                    [url] => http://www.wipo.int/wipolex/en/details.jsp?id=10558
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Labour law
                                                    [url] => http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/zro_precisten_2010.pdf
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law for prohibition and protection from discrimination
                                                    [url] => http://www.kzd.mk/phocadownload/zakon-za-sprecuvanje-i-zastita-od-diskriminacija.pdf
                                                )

                                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia
                                                    [url] => http://www.sobranie.mk/ustav-na-rm.nspx
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [39] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => F. Employment
                                    [theme_title] => F2. Public employment services
                                    [theme_slug] => f2-public-employment-services
                                    [theme_id] => 39
                                    [contents] => The Government is responsible for promoting the employment of people with disabilities and receives support from the European Social Funds for the modernisation of public employment services at the national, regional, and local level. The main agency of central government in this area is the Employment Service Agency of Republic of Macedonia (which also publishes statistics concerning unemployed people with disabilities). In 2009 steps were taken to enact a quota system for the employment of people with disabilities. The Law was prepared but it was not enacted due to resistance from international business and shelted companies.

Law on civil servants and other laws and by-laws that regulate the employment in the public sector do not mention the issue of disability. Even more, they have 'neutral' provisions which place people with disability in a disadvantaged position, such as the requirement of a certificate of good general health condition. Other laws in this field do not mention people with disabilities. [update_date] => 2016-06-09 11:49:00 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Employment Service Agency of Republic of Macedonia [url] => http://www.avrm.gov.mk/ ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on civil servants: [url] => http://www.ads.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/ZDS_sl_vesnik_76_2010_precisten.pdf ) ) ) [40] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F3. Workplace adaptations [theme_slug] => f3-workplace-adaptations [theme_id] => 40 [contents] => According to the Law for employment of people with disability, employers can claim funds from the Governmental Special Funds in an amount up to 1,500 Euros for workplace adaptation according the needs of a single employee with disability. The employer is responsible for adaptations in the workplace. [update_date] => 2012-06-08 18:44:26 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law for employment of people with disability [url] => http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/vrabotuvanje_invalidni.doc ) ) ) [41] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F4. Financial incentives [theme_slug] => f4-financial-incentives [theme_id] => 41 [contents] => According to the Law for employment of people with disabilities, the state exempts sheltered companies from pension and health contributions for all its employees (with or without disabilities). In addition, sheltered companies can receive more than 5,000 Euros per employed person with disability for a period of three years. In a period of five years, they can request around 40,000 Euros for equipment advancement. Other companies can request return of the pension and health contribution only for the employed person with disability. The public sector is excluded from these financial incentives. [update_date] => 2012-07-27 10:49:40 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law for employment of people with disabilities [url] => http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/vrabotuvanje_invalidni.doc ) ) ) [43] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G1. Official research [theme_slug] => g1-official-research [theme_id] => 43 [contents] => There is no official research on data for people with disabilities in Macedonia. According to WHO, Macedonia as a country in development is presumed to have 10% of its population with some kind of disability. MLSP provided data in 2009, and there are over 12,000 beneficiaries of social disability benefits, which is well below the figures expected. The Employment Service Agency also publishes statistics on people with disabilities who are registered unemployed. The State Statistical Office produces a number of reports including some references to disability (invalidity). [update_date] => 2012-07-27 10:50:36 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => State Statistical Office data references to disability (invalidity) [url] => http://www.stat.gov.mk/GSearch_en.aspx?cx=005984792435174779271%3Av7t0sn-wu1a&cof=FORID%3A10&ie=UTF-8&q=invalid&sa=Search ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Strategy for Reducing Poverty and Social Exclusion (2010-2020) [url] => http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/SocialExclusion%20Starategy%20MK%20final%20word.doc ) ) ) [44] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G2. Census data [theme_slug] => g2-census-data [theme_id] => 44 [contents] => A question of disability was first entered in the census questionnaire planned for 2011, which was suspended for political reasons. The State Census Commission is the responsible body of the State Statistical Office. [update_date] => 2012-06-09 13:26:08 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => State Census Commission [url] => http://www.stat.gov.mk/Aktivnosti_en.aspx?rbra=27 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Information regarding the 2011 Census [url] => http://www.stat.gov.mk/Aktivnosti_en.aspx?rbra=43 ) ) ) [45] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G3. Labour Force Survey [theme_slug] => g3-labour-force-survey [theme_id] => 45 [contents] => Disability is calculated as a separate issue in the Labour survey. The rates for employment/unemployment are provided by National Agency for employment, Ministry for Labour and Social Policy etc. International institutions and domestic NGOs have also performed partial surveys (with inconsistent data). [update_date] => 2012-07-27 10:51:30 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => 2010 Labour Force Survey report [url] => http://www.stat.gov.mk/PrikaziPoslednaPublikacija_en.aspx?id=3 ) ) ) [46] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G4. Disability equality indicators [theme_slug] => g4-disability-equality-indicators [theme_id] => 46 [contents] => There are no official disability equality indicators established in Macedonia. [update_date] => 2012-06-09 13:30:29 [links] => Array ( ) ) [48] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H1. Awareness raising programs [theme_slug] => h1-awareness-raising-programs [theme_id] => 48 [contents] => Although no comprehensive awareness raising program exists, there are certain awareness raising actions. In 2009, the Ministry for Labour and Social Policy launched a small scale campaign. Since 2000, DPOs have occasionally launched specific campaigns (Poraka, Polio Plus). The Share-SEE project (Handicap International) has supported several local DPOs with capacity building training seminars. [update_date] => 2012-07-27 10:52:18 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Information on the Poraka campaign (2009) [url] => http://www.ndi.org/node/18698 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Polio Plus activities [url] => http://civicamobilitas.org.mk/en/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=117:polio-plus--movement-against-handicap&catid=27:-2011&Itemid=231 ) ) ) [49] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H2. Training for teachers [theme_slug] => h2-training-for-teachers [theme_id] => 49 [contents] => There is no formal training requirement in special education for mainstream teachers in Macedonia. Some introductory activity is undertaken by civil society organisations. The Pedagogical Institute of Macedonia has identified for some years the need for greater awareness and training for inclusive education amongst teachers (e.g. in studies supported by the European Training Foundation). There is a graduate course of study for Special Education teachers (who work in institutions and special schools but may advise as part of team in mainstream schools). Institute of Special Education and Rehabilitation also publishes the Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation. [update_date] => 2012-06-09 14:10:31 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Institute of Special Education and Rehabilitation [url] => http://fzf.ukim.edu.mk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=502&Itemid=79&lang=en-GB ) ) ) [50] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H3. Training for lawyers [theme_slug] => h3-training-for-lawyers [theme_id] => 50 [contents] => There is no formal training on disability equality for legal professionals. [update_date] => 2012-07-27 10:52:54 [links] => Array ( ) ) [51] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H4. Training for doctors [theme_slug] => h4-training-for-doctors [theme_id] => 51 [contents] => There is no formal training on disability equality for medical professionals. [update_date] => 2012-06-09 13:57:55 [links] => Array ( ) ) [52] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H5. Training for engineers [theme_slug] => h5-training-for-engineers [theme_id] => 52 [contents] => A manual for accessibility was published in cooperation between civil society and the Faculty for Architecture in 2006. Occasional lectures on the subject universal design have been organized in the universities. The five-year curriculum for architect students does not include specific reference to disability access or inclusive design. [update_date] => 2012-07-27 10:53:30 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Faculty of Architecture [url] => http://a2.arh.ukim.edu.mk/index.php ) ) ) [53] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H6. International development aid [theme_slug] => h6-international-development-aid [theme_id] => 53 [contents] => Macedonia has been primarily a recipient, rather than a donor, of international aid. There are several programmes specifically targeting people with disability (e.g. in EU pre-accession (IPA) Regional Development Programmes and USAID Disability Strategy projects). [update_date] => 2012-07-27 10:54:38 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => EU pre-accession (IPA) Regional Development Programmes [url] => http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/ap.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => USAID Disability Strategy projects [url] => http://macedonia.usaid.gov/mk/index.html ) ) ) ) ) ) )