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Serbia

A. UN Convention status

A1. Ratification or conclusion of the UN Convention

Serbia signed the UN CRPD on 17 December 2007. The Parliament ratified the Convention on the Sixth regular meeting of spring session of the National Parliament on 29 May 2009. The Law on Ratification of the CRPD was published in the 'Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia - International Treaties' No 42/2009 on 2 June 2009 and entered into force on the eighth day of its publication.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2015-03-13

A2. Ratification or accession to the Optional Protocol

Serbia signed the Optional Protocol to UNCRPD on 17 December 2007. The Parliament ratified the Optional Protocol on the Sixth regular meeting of spring session of the National Parliament on 29 May 2009. The Law on ratification of the Optional Protocol to CRPD was published in the 'Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia - International Treaties' No 42/2009 on 2 June 2009 and entered into force on the eighth day of its publication.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-12-07

A3. Declarations, Reservations and Objections

There are no declarations, reservations or objection to the CRPD or Optional Protocol by Republic of Serbia.

Update date: Fri, 2012-12-07

A4. Comprehensive review

The Persons with Disability Support Department of the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy and The National Organisation of Persons with Disabilities of Serbia published the Guide to the rights of persons with disabilities in the Republic of Serbia. First edition was published in May 2008 and the second edition in February 2011. The second edition provides information about the rights of persons with disabilities and the conditions for their realization, the use of the services of institutions in all systems of protection provided by the laws of the Republic of Serbia - social security, health protection, legal protection of children and the families, education system, labour and employment, pension and disability insurance, transportation, housing, prevention of discrimination etc.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-12-07

A5. Focal point

The Office for Human and Minority Rights was established by the Government of the Republic of Serbia in August 2012 as governmental service responsible, among other activities, for monitoring compliance of national regulations with international treaties and other international acts on human and minority rights, and initiating amendments to national regulations. The Office coordinates preparation of national reports on the implementation of eight key international human rights treaties ratified by the Republic of Serbia, including the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, and coordinates the appearance of the state delegation in front of the relevant Committee.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2014-04-04

A6. Coordination mechanism

The Council for Persons with Disabilities of the Government of the Republic of Serbia was initiated in 2002 and officially established by the Government in 2005, following the proposal of The Persons with Disability Support Department of the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy. The Council consists of representatives of relevant ministries and national organisations of persons with disabilities. It is an expert and advisory body on the social and economic status of persons with disabilities and initiates: coordination with state authorities in the process of adopting regulations; implementation of laws and regulations on the protection of persons with disabilities; ratification of international documents in the field of protection of persons with disabilities; establishment and implementation of cooperation with international organizations dealing with the protection of persons with disabilities.The mandate of the Council is four years, and the last Decision on establishment of the Council was adopted by the Government in March 2013 (published in Official Gazette of RS 28/2013). Latest Council includes only five representatives of persons with disabilities from traditional organizations, representing persons with disabilities by the type of disability.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2014-04-04

A7. Independent mechanism

There is no independent monitoring mechanism established for CRPD in the Republic of Serbia. The Law on Prevention of Discrimination established independent body – Commissioner for Protection of Equality and provides the mechanism of filing a complaint based on discrimination on the grounds of disability. The Law on the Ombudsman provides for a possibility to file a complaint to the Ombudsman in cases of violations of rights by governmental institutions and bodies and public companies. There is a deputy Ombudsman for persons with disabilities and elderly, and the Ombudsman’s Council for persons with disabilities and elderly, consisted of various experts and activists from disability movement. In addition, The Ombudsman provides Opinions and Recommendations on current legislation and law proposals.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2014-04-04

A8. Official reporting

The Republic of Serbia was due to submit the Initial report on the implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) in August 2011. The report was prepared under the coordination of The Directorate for Human and Minority Rights (Ministry for Human and Minority Rights at that time), with the input from relevant ministries, state institutions and non-governmental and disabled peoples’ organisations. The Government adopted the Initial report on 10 May 2012, submitted it to the UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and officially published it on 19 June 2012. It was deposited at the UN on 21 June 2014.

In July 2015 the National Organisation of Persons with Disabilities of Serbia (NOOIS) in partnership with CIL Serbia and the Centre for Society Orientation (COD) – Disability Rights Promotion, International Regional Centre for Europe submitted the Alternative report to the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. It covered Articles 5-7, 9, 11-13, 19, 20, 24, 27-29, 31, 33. The Committee created the List of issues in relation to the initial report of Serbia on 11 September 2015, which was responded both by the State on 2 February 2016. NOOIS and partners sent summery review of responses to Additional Questions of the CRPD related to the Initial Report of the Republic of Serbia on the implementation of the CRPD in March 2016. The Committee discussed the issues with both state and NOOIS delegation on 5 and 6 April 2016 and adopted the Concluded Observations on 10 April 2016, which are all included in the draft of the New National Strategy of the Improvement of Position of Persons with Disabilities and resulted with the equalisation of the length of sentences for the act of rape of disabled and non-disabled persons in the Article 128 of the Criminal Code and understanding of its essence ("Official Gazette" 85/2005, 88/2005 - corr., 107/2005 - corr., 72/2009, 111/2009, 121/2012, 104/2013, 108/2014 and 94/2016).

On 11 May 2017 The Government of the Republic of Serbia adopted the report on the implementation of the Committee recommendation 34 to prohibit medical interventions without the prior consent of persons with disabilities and to provide sufficient remedies and compensation to those subjected to such procedures and recommendation 54 to 'review the practice of the application of law to make sure legislation is not disadvantageous for persons with disabilities in terms of employment and labour market participation'. The state was requested to inform the Committee (in written form) on the implemented measures within a period of 12 months according to article 35.(2) of the Convention. The report brings relevant statistical data on the active measures of employment and professional rehabilitation of disabled persons in 2017, but it does not indicate enough on the structural changes.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2017-09-21

A9. Shadow reporting

No report from civil society has been submitted to the UN Committee in parallel to the initial state report in 2015. However, Mental Disability Rights Initiative of Serbia (MDRI-S) published the report 'Practicing Universality of Rights: analysis of the implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in view of persons with intellectual disabilities in Serbia' in 2013 and is leading an informal Coalition for Deinstitutionalisation (mostly human rights NGOs) working on independent reporting on deinstitutionalisation and legal capacity issues. The Centre for Society Orientation published 'Monitoring of Disability Laws and Policies' and the 'Holistic report - Monitor your rights!' as a part of the Disability Rights Promotion International (DRPI) project. The Holistic report focused on five areas: accessibility – physical and information and communication; welfare system; education; work and employment; and health protection.
In July 2015 the National Organisation of Persons with Disabilities of Serbia (NOOIS) in partnership with CIL Serbia and the Centre for Society Orientation (COD) – Disability Rights Promotion, International Regional Centre for Europe submitted the Alternative report to the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
The Alternative Report directly impacted on the recommendations of the Committee and on legislative changes. However, the issues of the legal capacity, accessibility and social inclusion as part of social development are still challenges for all stakeholders beyond the strategies and action plans which are mostly synchronized with the Convention.
Meanwhile, Organisation ACED (Bosnia and Herzegovina) in partnership with IC LOTOS (Bosnia and Herzegovina), Union of Paraplegics (Montenegro) and CIL Serbia published the Report on Compliance of Legislative and Institutional Framework in the Republic of Serbia with the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and Recommendations for Harmonization in 2014 and the Report on Compliance of Legislative and Institutional Framework in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro with UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and Recommendations for Harmonization in 2015.
In June 2016 Human Rights Watch published a report on position of disabled children in Serbian institution titled 'It is My Dream to Leave This Place' which was sent to the UN Committee.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2017-10-10

B. General legal framework

B1. Anti-discrimination legislation

The Constitution of the Republic of Serbia under the Article 21. (“Prohibition of discrimination”), proclaims that everyone is equal before the Constitution and law and shall have the right to equal legal protection, without discrimination. Under the Constitution, all direct or indirect discrimination based on any grounds, particularly on race, sex, national origin, social origin, birth, religion, political or other opinion, property status, culture, language, age, mental or physical disability shall be prohibited. Special measures which the Republic of Serbia may introduce to achieve full equality of individuals or group of individuals in a substantially unequal position compared to other citizens shall not be considered discrimination.

The Law on Prevention of Discrimination against Persons with Disabilities, adopted on 17 April 2006 (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia No 33/2006), was created with respect to UN Standard Rules on the Equalisation of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities and, at the time, draft version of CRPD. It recognizes and prohibits following forms of discrimination: direct discrimination, indirect discrimination and violation of the principle of equal rights and obligations. In addition, it identifies severe cases of discrimination and special cases of discrimination in the following spheres of life: proceedings before public authorities, membership in associations, access to facilities, public areas and services, health care services, education, employment and labour relations, access to public transport, marital and family relations. It prescribes actions to be taken to improve the status of persons with disabilities, members of their families and associations that are provided with special support necessary for exercising rights under the same conditions as for others, and contains provisions obliging state and local self-government bodies to undertake special measures to encourage equality of persons with disabilities (Arts. 32–38) and entitles persons with disabilities to sue the competent institutions that have failed to introduce such measures.

The Law on the Prohibition of Discrimination (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia No 22/2009), states that discrimination shall be considered to exist in case of conduct contrary to the principle of respect for the equal rights and freedoms of persons with disabilities in political, economic, cultural and other aspects of public, professional, private and family life (Article 26 - Discrimination of persons with disabilities). The Law prescribes judicial protection and provides the opportunity for the lawsuits to be initiated by the Commissioner and an organisation engaged in the protection of human rights or the rights of a certain group of people. In addition to the Law on Prevention of Discrimination of Persons with Disabilities, it provides the mechanism to verify the existence of discrimination (Article 46.) and the burden of providing evidence that no violation of the principle of equality or the principle of equal rights and obligations has occurred shall fall on the defendant.

The Strategy for Prevention and Protection against Discrimination was adopted in June 2013 and is aimed at prevention of discrimination and improvement of the position of nine vulnerable groups, including persons with disabilities. The Strategy recognizes seven special objectives – areas for policy interventions regarding persons with disabilities: labor, employment and vocational training; personal status and family life; abuse and neglect; education; social and health care services; the use of public spaces; promotion of participation in political and public life and access to justice.

Many other, specific laws adopted in the recent years in Serbia contain articles that prohibit discrimination on the ground of, inter alia, disability, including the Law on Fundamentals of Education System, the Labour Law, the Law on Social Protection, the Law on Health Care, the Law on Youth etc.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2014-04-04

B2. Recognition of legal capacity

The Constitution of the Republic of Serbia (Article 52) states that every person in Serbia has the right to legal recognition. With the age of majority (18), a person gains the capacity to independently decide on his or her rights and obligations. The basic regulations regarding legal capacity and the placement of adults under guardianship are found in the Family Law (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia No 18/2005 and 72/2011) and in the Law on Non-Contentious Proceedings (Official Gazette of the Socialist Republic of Serbia, No. 25/82 and 48/1988 and Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia, No. 46/95 and 18/2005 - while there were changes to the Law, legal capacity relevant articles being mostly the same since 1982). The Family Law recognizes three types of limitations to the exercise of legal capacity: full deprivation of legal capacity, partial deprivation of legal capacity and extension of parental rights. According to the Law, adults shall be fully deprived of legal capacity in the event they are “incapable of sound reasoning due to an illness or psycho-physical developmental difficulties and are thus incapable of caring for themselves and protecting their rights and interests”. Legal capacity of these persons is equal to the legal capacity of a younger minor (child below the age of 14). The law also provides that an adult person who, as a result of illness or difficulties in psychological or physical development, “directly threatens his or her own rights and interests or the rights and interests of other persons” may be partially deprived of his or her legal capacity. Legal capacity of these persons is equal to that of an older minor (child between the age of 14 and 18). Parental rights may be extended before a child reaches the legal age of majority if a child “is incapable of taking care of and protecting his or her rights, or if he/she threatens his or her rights and interests through his or her actions, as a result of illness or difficulties in psychological or physical development”, which in practice is equal to full deprivation of legal capacity.

Persons fully deprived of their legal capacity may undertake only legal actions of minor significance and cannot undertake any legal actions by which they are assigned rights or obligations – deprivation automatically affects decision-making in many different areas of life and forbids exercising significant number of rights regulated by the Family Law (entering into marriage and exercising parental rights) and other laws such as: the Law on Health Protection (deciding on medical procedures), the Law on Organ Transplantation (receiving an organ transplant), the Law on Citizenship in the Republic of Serbia (gaining citizenship), the Law on Social Protection, the Law on Obligation Relations (entering into contracts, which by default prevents employment and buying or selling of property), the Law on the Election of the President of the Republic (voting), the Law on Volunteering, (volunteering) etc.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-12-07

B3. Accessibility of voting and elections

In the Constitution of the Republic of Serbia, under Article 52 (Electoral right), every citizen of the age of majority and with legal capacity shall have the right to vote and to be elected, and suffrage shall be universal and equal for all. The Law on the Elections of Members of Parliament (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia No 36/2011 and 104/2009) defines the rights of those unable able to vote at polling stattions ('blind, disabled or illiterate person') to bring a person who shall instead of him, in the manner determined by him, fill the ballot. Also, the Law prescribes the right to vote outside the voting place, with the same opportunity for assistance with filling in the ballot. The Law on Local Elections (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia No 129/2007) requires the Election Commission to determine voting places, taking into account the equal distribution of voters and accessibility. According to the Law on Unique Voters Registration List (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia No 104/2009 and 99/2011), citizens can vote in accordance with a place of temporary residence (as opposed to previous regulation that required voters to register according to their permanent residence), which in theory provides the right for persons living in health and social protection institutions to vote (although they would need to go to the municipal administration to register). In March 2012 (in a campaign prior to the May 2012 elections), the Ombudsman issued Opinion and recommendations to all state organs responsible for organizing elections to provide physical access to voting places, election materials in Braille (candidate lists, ballots etc) and all relevant information interpreted in sign language or simultaneously written texts. In addition, the Ombudsman recommended to local governments and election committees to update voters registration lists considering the residents of institutions and to organize voting in those institutions if necessary.

Links

Update date: Sun, 2012-12-09

B4. Official recognition of sign language

Certain number of laws recognizes the existence and purpose of the Sign language. It has been officially recognized through the Law on Fundamentals of Education System, which requires that education of persons using sign language, i.e. special alphabet or other technical solutions, may be provided in the sign language and using means of the language and the Law on Higher Education (a higher education institution may organize and implement studies and/or certain parts of studies, in a sign language for students with disabilities). The proposal of the Law on the Use of Serbian Sign Language was available for public discussion and entered adoption procedures, but is recently withdrawn for further development – during public discussion the issue of education and licensing of sign language interpreters was raised. Draft law was developed by the Persons with Disability Support Department of the Ministry of Labour, Employment and Social Policy in cooperation with the Serbian Association of Deaf and Hard of Hearing and The Center for Advanced Legal Studies who developed and published the Model of the Law on Use of Sign Language. The Law should provide standardization of the Serbian sign language, introduce sign language interpretation service.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2014-04-04

B5. National disability strategy and action plan

Government of the Republic of Serbia adopted the Strategy for Improving the Position of Persons with Disabilities in the Republic of Serbia (Official Gazette of RS 01/07) in 2006. The strategic objective that this document sets out is the advancement of persons with disabilities to a position of equal citizenship, enjoying full rights and responsibilities. The time period for achievement of general and specific objectives of the Strategy is from 2007-2015. The task of the Strategy and Action Plan is to define the objectives, measures and activities that will contribute to the social model and an approach based on human rights incorporated in measures that affect the issues of the status of persons with disabilities.

The Action Plan for Implementation of the Strategy for Improving the Position of Persons with Disabilities for 2013-2015 has been developed under the leadership of National Organisation of Persons with Disabilities of Serbia and adopted in June 2013.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2014-04-04

C. Accessibility

C1. Transport accessibility

The Law on Prevention of Discrimination Against Persons with Disabilities provides general framework for anti-discrimination and definition of discrimination on the ground of disability within transportation services and in all modes of transport (Article 27 - Discrimination in relation to transport), including refusal to carry the passenger with a disability, refusal of the crew of the vehicle to provide physical assistance to passengers with disabilities and determining the unfavourable conditions of transport for passengers with disabilities (in particular the payment terms).

The Law on planning and construction and The Regulation on technical accessibility standards contain provisions on accessibility of railway and bus stations, bus stops and airports as public places.The Law on Air Traffic contains provisions that regulate general obligation of airports for accessibility of ground services, such as assistance to passengers with disability, which must be provided without discrimination and in a way most suitable for the passengers.

There are only three railway stations in Serbia that are accessible to wheelchair users (out of five that are physically accessible) and that are equipped with ribbed rubber walking pads and orientation panels for blind persons (out of six that provide information to passengers in this format) - Belgrade, Novi Sad and Subotica. Guide dogs are recognised as companions/assistants and allowed, although there is no Law on guide and assistant dogs in Serbia (there is certain level of public awareness of the purpose of the guide dogs, but in many parts of the private and public sector they are still treated as pets). There is only one train accessible to wheelchair users (270/271 Belgrade – Praha hl.n. – Belgrade). The passengers using wheelchairs are given a specified place in the coach technically equipped for their transport, reserved in advance, and are provided with the parking place for their vehicle and access without stairs through special mobile elevators that lift people in wheelchairs to enter the coach and exit from the coach.

In major cities such as Belgrade (the capitol), Novi Sad, Nis, Kragujevac, city self-government organizes “specialized” transportation with accessible vans, which is only available for members of certain traditional disabled peoples’ associations, with limited capacities and coverage (e.g. not covering suburban municipalities within the city). In addition, there are accessible (marked, low-floored) buses, trolleys and trams within city public transportation networks in respective cities, while many stops are not adjusted for proper use of accessible vehicles.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2013-02-18

C2. Built environment accessibility

The Law on Planning and Construction (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia No 72/2009, 81/2009, 64/2010 and 24/2011) defines standards of accessibility as “mandatory technical measures, standards and conditions of design, planning and construction which ensure unhindered movement and access for persons with disabilities, children and the elderly'. It provides obligations, planning rules and professional supervision that include controls and checks on the quality of execution of all types of work and application of regulations, standards and technical norms, including standards of accessibility. The minister prescribes in more detail the technical standards of accessibility. The Law also prescribes penalties for the investor and the responsible person if the access to the built facility for persons with disability is not provided, in compliance with accessibility standards.

The Regulation on Technical Accessibility Standards (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia No 19/2012), provides the technical accessibility standards to ensure the unhindered movement of children, the elderly, people with walking impairments and persons with disabilities, developed urban-technical requirements for the planning of public space, traffic and pedestrian areas, access to buildings (residential, public and etc.) as well as special devices in them. Nevertheless, the Regulation was created and adopted without public discussion or any consultations with disabled people’s organisations or other relevant stakeholders from civil and professional sectors. This left the standards unclear or not developed at all in certain areas, such as improvement of accessibility of existing (already built) facilities and the parts that define the required content of an architectural project or accessibility standards for the elderly and children. The Ombudsman issued the Opinion that Ministry of Urban planning and Construction must harmonize this Regulation with CRPD, the Law on Prevention of Discrimination Against Persons with Disabilities and other positive legislation of Serbia.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-12-07

C3. ICT and Web accessibility

The Electronic Communications Law ('Official Gazette of RS', 44/2010) bases the objectives and principles regulating relations in the field of electronic communications on ensuring the availability of universal service and ensuring the maximum benefit to all citizens in the Republic of Serbia, to meet the needs of specific social groups, including people with disabilities, the elderly and vulnerable customers. The Law calls for special measures for persons with disabilities and vulnerable customers to ensure equal opportunities for access to publicly available telephone services, including making calls to emergency services, information services and public telephone directories. According to the Law, the Republic Agency for Electronic Communications may set specific requirements for securing the accessibility of certain electronic communications services for people with disabilities, and is responsible for analysis of requirements for ensuring equal opportunities to use services for persons with disabilities.

The Law onfree access to information of public importance ('Official Gazette of RS', no. 120/2004, 54/2007, 104/2009 and 36/2010)regulates the obligation of the state body to publish, at least annually, a directory with basic information about rules and decisions of state bodies regarding publicity of the body, which includes working hours, contact details, accessibility for persons with disabilities, access to sessions, permissibility of audio and video recording etc.

The Law on Broadcasting (Official Gazette of the RS No. 42/02, 97/04, 76/05, 79/05, 62/06 85/06. 86/06 and 41/09) mentions disability only in the context of exemption from the obligation to pay theradio-television subscription to public broadcasting services.

The National Broadcasting Agency – National TV Channel (RTS) has increased the number of accessible programs in recent years. The TV show “Place for Us” has been running for two years now, covering a wide range of disability related issues. This programme has sign language interpretation during all 30 minutes of its showing. Also, there is news with sign language interpretation on National TV Channel every day of around 10 minutes. Since July 2011, in cooperation with the Association 'Homer' and the Official Gazette of Republic of Serbia, The Agency broadcasts movies synchronized and adapted for the visually impaired and blind people, once a month. In addition, RTS provided sign language interpretation for the presidential candidates’ debate at the end of the recent elections in Republic of Serbia (May 2012).

There are other TV stations with national or local broadcasting that have introduced the practice of having at least one news programme with sign language interpretation during the day and special programmes that are dealing with disability issues (such as the national RTV B92 and Studio B, that covers the wider area of the city of Belgrade).

Links

Update date: Mon, 2013-02-18

D. Independent living

D1. Choice of living arrangements

The Law on Social Protection (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia No. 24/2011), inter alia, envisages provision of support services for independent living in the community through organising personal assistance services at the local level and supported housing, as well as various daily services which include daily care and help in the household. Article 4 of this law states that each individual has the right to the social protection indispensable for overcoming social and life barriers and enabling conditions for satisfying one’s basic life needs.

The Law on Public Housing (Official Gazette of RS No 72/2009) governs the conditions for sustainable development of public housing and the method of provision and use of funds for development of public housing, as well as other issues of importance for public housing. The funds for public housing shall be used, inter alia, to incite various forms of provision of apartments for public housing of persons with disabilities, individual and family of persons with disabilities and civilians disabled during war, as well as supported housing for persons with disabilities. Disability is one of the basic criteria for establishment of priority list for settlement of housing needs of persons who accomplish the right to resolution of housing needs.

The Strategy for Improving the Position of Persons with Disabilities in the Republic of Serbia, one of the specific objectives (Objective 11) within the goal 3 “Develop and implement policy actions and programmes, particularly in the areas of education, employment, work and housing, which provide equal opportunities for persons with disabilities and encourage independence, personal development and active life in all areas” calls for improvement of the quality of life of persons with disabilities by creating opportunities for their free choice of living conditions and lifestyles in an environment of their choice. Planned activities for reaching this objective include development and implementation of programs for assisted living in community, public education programs and independent living training for persons with disabilities and family rights programs.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2013-04-24

D2. De-institutionalisation

The Strategy for Development of Social Protection (2005) identifies many of limitations of social protection system in Serbia and identifies that persons with disabilities should be taken care of in the least restrictive environment, according to their condition. One of the priorities of the reform of the social protection system is to improve their protection through the processes of preventing institutional care, gradual decrease of institutions’ capacities, raising the quality of institutional care and creating possibilities for users to leave institutions and go to the natural or less restrictive environment. Specific Goal 2 of the Strategy is the realization of a network of community services. This strategy’s goals and objectives were mostly addressed by the enactment of the new Law on Social Protection (March 2011), and accompanying bylaws (some of them still being underdevelopment).

The Strategy for Improving the Position of Persons with Disabilities, in the Measure 4 of Specific Objective 5: To improve the service and support system for users in accordance to their needs, refers to de-institutionalisation and states that social, health and other services for persons with disabilities must fully respect the principle of accessibility of services within the local community “with full implementation of the process of de-institutionalisation.”, as well as in the Measure 1 of Specific Objective 6: “To strengthen the families of persons with disabilities by providing adequate support for appropriate services helping to integration persons with disabilities into the community”.

The Law on Social Protection (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia, No.24/2011) redefines institutional placement as only one form of social services. Institutional placement is provided to users for whom staying in the family, community services or family placement either cannot be provided, or are not in their best interest. Children younger than three years of age cannot be placed in institutional care except in cases of particularly justified reasons, and children cannot spend more than two months there, except with the approval of the relevant ministry. Still, the definitions of “best interest” and “particularly justified reasons” leaves enough space for interpretations which could undermine the efforts in the direction of de-institutionalization provided by the Law.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2013-04-24

D3. Quality of social services

The Article 69 (Social protection) of the Constitution of the Republic of Serbia states that social protection is provided according to the principles of social justice, humanity and respect of human dignity, and that disabled people (“invalids” in Serbian version), war veterans and victims of war are entitled to special protection in accordance with the law.

The Law on Social Protection (2011), in the Article 5 defines social services as “activities of support and assistance to users and their families for improving or retaining their quality of life, removing or mitigating the risk of negative life conditions, and creating the conditions for living independently within the community” (emphasis added). According to the law, social services should be provided primarily in a direct and least restrictive environment, while choosing those services that enable the user to remain in his or her community. The law introduces the principle of accessibility (physical, geographical and economical) and individual approach and provides a list of social services, grouped into five categories: assessment and planning services, day services within the community, independent living support services (including supported living, personal assistance, training for independent living, other types of support necessary for active participation in society), counselling and socio-educational services, and accommodation services including placement into residential institutions.

Rulebooks and other bylaws that should accompany the Law on Social Protection are under development are expected to regulate the quality standards for social services and service providers.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2013-04-24

D4. Provision of assistive devices at home

The right to assistive devices is regulated mostly within the system of health protection, through the Law on Health Insurance (Official Gazette of Republic of Serbia No 107/2005, 57/2011 and 119/2012). The eligibility to certain type of aids is regulated by the Rulebook on medical-technical aids that are provided from the compulsory health insurance (Official Gazette of Republic of Serbia No 7/13). Other regulation on assistive devices include the Rulebook on Orthopaedic Aids for Disabled Veterans (Official Gazette of Republic of Serbia No 45/09) and the Rulebook on medical indications for orthopaedic and other aids for disabled veterans (Official Gazette of Republic of Serbia No 37/2000). In addition, The Law on Disability and Pension Insurance (Official Gazette of Republic of Serbia No 34/03, 64/04, 84/04, 85/05, 101/05, 63/06, 5/09, 107/09, 101/10) provides the right of blind persons to assistive devices.

In most cases, administrative procedures are long and include public procurement procedures, while the quality of aids is not sufficient (outdated types/models in many cases). There is an option provided within the Law on Value Added Tax (Official Gazette of Republic of Serbia No 93/2012) and The Customs Law (Official Gazette of Republic of Serbia No 18/2010 and 111/2012), to import assistive devices tax and other fees free.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2013-04-24

D5. Availability of personal assistance schemes

We do not yet have information for this item

Update date: Thu, 2012-04-05

D6. Income maintenance

We do not yet have information for this item

Update date: Thu, 2012-04-05

D7. Additional costs

We do not yet have information for this item

Update date: Thu, 2012-04-05

D8. Retirement income

The Law on pension and disability insurance (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia No 34/2003, 64/2004 – Supreme Court decision, 84/2004, 85/2005, 101/2005, 63/2006 - Supreme Court decision, 5/2009, 107/2009 and 101/2010) regulates compulsory and voluntary pension and disability insurance for cases of ageing, disability, death or physical impairment.

In cases where complete lack of working capability is determined, it is possible to receive disability pension up until the age required to realize the right to old age pension if the reason for disability is injury at work or professional disease regardless of the length of pensionable service or the disability is a consequence of disease or injury unrelated to work, in which case at least five years of pensionable service are required (three years for persons under the age of 30, or two and one respectively for persons under the ages 25 and 20). Follow-up examination must be performed within three years, with the exception of persons over 58 years old and those whose medical diagnoses are such that they are not likely to experience working capability improvement. Employed person with disability who gets fired against his/her will is entitled to half of disability pension upon termination of National Employment Agency benefits. In addition, the Article 119 of the Labour Law obliges employer to pay severance amounting to at least three average salaries if a person became disability pension user while employed.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2013-04-24

E. Education

E1. Special schools

The Law on Fundamentals of the Education System (2009) provides mandatory enrolment of all children in mainstream elementary schools (based on the place of residence in school area). Only after several months of attendance of mainstream school and application of all available measures of inclusive education (individualisation and application of an individual education plans), it can be recommended to transfer a child with disability to special school. Education in schools for special education of students with disabilities is organised mostly by the type of disability, which means that students with the same type of disability are segregated into special schools or special classes with little or no interaction with other students. Total number of schools for special education in Serbia is 48, of which 13 are in Belgrade. Each of the 17 school directorates have at least one such school. Most of the elementary schools (14) and combined elementary and secondary schools (20) are for the education of pupils with mental disabilities. There are also schools for education of pupils with hearing impairment (8), blind pupils (2, both in Belgrade) and pupils with behavioural difficulties, moving difficulties and children on prolonged hospitalization. The total number of special classes in mainstream schools is 314. Based on the Law on Fundamentals of the Education System, schools for special education have an opportunity toprovide additional support in the education of children, pupils and adults with disabilities in the educational group, or other school and family in accordance with the criteria and standards set by the Minister. It is anticipated that, depending on the needs of the program that is implemented, additional support and professional activities in school can also be perform by special education teacher, speech therapist, social worker and adult educator.

Links

Update date: Sun, 2012-12-09

E2. Mainstream schools

According to the Constitution of Republic of Serbia, article 71 [1], elementary education is obligatory and free to everyone and secondary education is free. The Law on Prevention of Discrimination against Persons with Disabilities defines general obligation of the state administration, autonomous province and local self-government responsible for education to provide measures aimed for education of persons with disabilities to become an integral part of the general education system (Article 36 - Measures to ensure equality in the field of education).

Legislative framework for education is provided by The Law on Fundamentals of Education System (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia No 72/2009 and 52/2011). According to the Law it is mandatory to enrol all children in mainstream elementary schools. The preparatory preschool program is obligatory for every child and it can be provided by pre-school institution or elementary school. Children enrolled in school can be tested, but only after several months of attendance of mainstream school and application of all available measures of inclusive education, it can be recommended to transfer child with disabilities to school for children with disabilities (former special schools). Measures of inclusive education that are provided by the Law are further described in The Rulebook on additional educational, health and social support to the child and pupil and The Rulebook on detailed guidelines for determining the right to the individual education plan (IEP). In addition, the Law introduces the role of pedagogical assistant.

The Rulebook on additional educational, health and social support to the child and student (Official Gazette of Republic of Serbia No 63/2010 - The Rulebook was adopted by the Ministry of Education (, Science and Technological Development), Ministry of Health and Ministry of Labour (, Employment) and Social Policy) regulates an assessment of needs for additional support in the educational system, through the operation of the Interdepartmental Commission (IC), at the local level. The Rulebook states that all assessments must be in accordance to best interest of the child and through holistic approach.

The Rulebook on detailed guidelines for determining the right to the individual education plan (IEP), and its implementation and evaluation (Official Gazette of Republic of Serbia No 72/09 and 76/2010), enables children from vulnerable groups to be educated within the regular educational system in accordance with their abilities. There are tree levels of adjustment of educational process to children that have need of additional support. Pedagogical profile of a student is the first document in assessment process in which pupils and disabilities are well described together with assessment of needs, with holistic and social approach to description. The first level of adjustment, individualisation, is characterised as removal of physical and communicational barriers. It can be provided without any administration and changed in any moment according to the needs of child. Individual education plan (IEP) can be developed on two levels, IEP with adjusted educational standards and IEP with changed educational standards. Both levels have specific procedures and regulations in which they can be applied, including written approval of the parent/caregiver.

The Law on Textbooks and Other Teaching Materials(Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia No 50/2011)prescribes that a textbook, i.e. teaching materials used for customised education of the blind and visually impaired, may be written in Braille, in an electronic form or in formats customized to the blind and visually impaired such as large print, sound recordings or photo enlargements or other format and medium.

[1]http://www.srbija.gov.rs/cinjenice_o_srbiji/ustav_odredbe.php?id=102

Links

Update date: Tue, 2013-04-23

E3. Sign language and Braille in school

The Law on Fundamentals of Education System prescribes that education of persons using sign language, i.e. special alphabet or other technical solutions, may be provided in the sign language and using means of the language (Article 9). The Law on Textbooks and Other Teaching Materials (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia No 50/2011) prescribes that a textbook, i.e. teaching materials used for customised education of blind and visually impaired people, may be written in Braille, in an electronic form or in customized formats such as large print, sound recordings or photo enlargements, or other format and medium. While special schools for blind and visually impaired children provide lessons in Braille, those for deaf and hard of hearing children (both elementary and secondary) do not teach Serbian or other sign language.

Links

Update date: Sun, 2012-12-09

E4. Vocational training

Vocational training is determined by the Law on Fundamentals of Education System. The Article 27 of the Law states that a secondary education can be delivered in gymnasium (general and specialized gymnasiums), vocational school, joint school (gymnasium and vocational or music school), arts school, secondary school for the education of adults and secondary school for students with developmental disabilities. The Article 69 of the law states that education in secondary schools can be also delivered through individual education plan. According to the same law (article 83) student with disabilities can pass final exam of vocational training (“Matura”) which is adjusted to his/her abilities and in accordance with individual education plan as it was used during the training.

Also, the Strategy for the Development of Vocational Education and Training in the Republic of Serbia was adopted by the Serbian Government in 2006. The National Action Plan for the Implementation of the Strategy for the Development of the Vocational Education and Training in the Republic of Serbia 2009-2015 was developed accordingly, and adopted in 2008. The Action plan lists further development and improvement of vocational education in order to address the needs of labour market development and the needs of different target groups as one of the priorities. Among six priorities for further development of curricula defined by the Action plan, special tasks have been defined regarding the development and improvement of programmes in the languages of national minorities and for the students with disabilities within the priority “Further modernization of the contents, organization and methods of teaching, teachers’ work and schools which includes further development and innovation of modular education programmes based on learning outcomes”.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2013-04-23

E5. Higher education

The Law on Higher Education, adopted in August 2005, for the first time recognized students with disabilities as a special category of students. The right to higher education is applicable to all persons who completed their secondary education irrespective of, inter alia existence of a sensory or movement disability. The founder shall provide funds to a higher education institution for, inter alia, funding of the equipment and conditions for studies of students with disability (Article 59). For students with disabilities, a higher education institution may organize and implement studies and/or certain parts of studies, in a sign language (Article 80 – this still haven’t become practice on any higher education institution). A student with disability shall have the right to take an exam in the manner adapted to his/her abilities, in accordance with the general act of a higher education institution (Article 90).The Law on Pupil and Student Standards (Article 4) (Official Gazette of Republic of Serbia, No. 18/2010). identified vulnerable groups in higher education and defined support measures for widening access and completion of higher education (accommodation, food, student loans, student scholarships, scholarships for gifted students, rest and recovering, cultural, arts, sports and recreational activities and information) – students with disabilities among total of eight groups with lower socio-economic background.The Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development awards scholarships to students with disabilities in the amount that covers the costs of food and accommodation in the student dormitory. On average, each year about 120 students with disabilities are supported (126 in school year 2010/2011).Support for students with disabilities is provided by associations of students with disabilities in bigger university centres. University of Belgrade established the Centre for Students with Disabilities in 2008. Associations and Centre provide assistance to students with disabilities in regulating their status on faculties (tuition fee exemption etc.). Until school year 2011/2012, there was an affirmative action for students with disabilities in applying for places in student dorms (which were not accessible in most cases), even the special dormitory for students with disabilities in Belgrade. New reconstructions will provide accessibility in all dormitories and students with disabilities will apply for the place in any dormitory in general call for applications.

Links

Update date: Sun, 2012-12-09

F. Employment

F1. Non-discrimination in employment

The Constitution of the Republic of Serbia, in the Article 60 - Right to work, guarantees the right to work and free choice of occupation. Persons with disabilities, together with women and youth have been identified as groups that should be provided with special protection at work and special work conditions.

The Law on Prevention of Discrimination against Persons with Disabilities contains section “Discrimination related to Employment and Work” which defines acts of discrimination against person with disability related to job seeking, employment, salary, adjustments of workplace and treatment of employees with disabilities. This section also introduces affirmative measures as non-discriminatory acts.

The Labour Law (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia No 24/05, 61/05 and 54/2009), in article 18. prohibits direct and indirect discrimination against persons seeking employment and employees in respect to their health status or disability, inter alia, and identifies provision of special measures, assistance and protection of disabled persons and persons on leave for special childcare as non-discrimination. The Labour Law does not prescribe any special protection against cancellation of employment contract based on disability, but it contains provisions on illegal cancellation of employment contract and how labour inspectors shall act in case of illegal cancellation of employment contract, which are valid for all employees.

The Law on Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment of Persons with Disabilities (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia No 36/2009) introduced the obligation to employ persons with disabilities as the principle of affirmative action aiming to increase participation of persons with disabilities in the labour market.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2013-04-23

F2. Public employment services

The Law on Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment of Persons with Disabilities (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia No 36/2009) provides the jurisdiction of the National Employment Agency in determining of the work capabilities of persons with disabilities. National Employment Agency issues a decisionon assessed work skills and employment opportunities or maintaining employment, based on findings, opinions and assessment of experts body consisting of medical experts from the Republic Fund for Pension and Disability Insurance, a specialist in occupational medicine, psychologists and experts of National Employment Agency.

The National Employment Agency has established a Centre for Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment of Persons with Disabilities as the main provider of vocational rehabilitation services and programmes of active labour market measures aimed at persons with disabilities. It provides statistics regarding the employment rate of disabled people, as well as other employment related statistics, in their annual and other reports and publications (in cooperation with Statistical Office of Republic of Serbia).

Links

Update date: Tue, 2013-04-23

F3. Workplace adaptations

The Law on Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment of Persons with Disabilities contains provision related to reimbursement of appropriate expenses of adaptations or adjustments of the workplace, which may be granted to the employer who hires a person with disability. Adjusting relates to the technical and technological equipping of the workplace, premises and equipment, in accordance with the capabilities and needs of persons with disabilities. The amount of reimbursement is up to 300,000 RSD (2500-3000 EUR) and must not be greater than the costs of actual adjustments.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2013-04-23

F4. Financial incentives

The National Employment Action Plan for 2012 (based on the National Strategy for Employment 2011-2020) states that incentives for: recruitment of persons with disabilities, vocational rehabilitation services, refunds for salaries of persons with disabilities employed in vocational rehabilitation enterprises, improvement of conditions of work, upgrading of production lines, introduction of standards, improvement of the quality of products and services, adjustments in the workplace and other services, are paid for by the Fund for Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment of Persons with Disabilities. This comprises State funds, penalties and payments made towards the co-financing of salaries of persons with disabilities employed in vocational rehabilitation enterprises, social enterprises or organisations.

The Law on Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment of Persons with Disabilities introduces incentives to improve the conditions of work (includes accessibility), incentives and support in cases of self-employment, strengthening the capacities of enterprises for vocational rehabilitation and employment of persons with disabilities, targeting active labour market programmes for hard-to-employ individuals and groups at risk of labour market exclusion; subsidising employers’ share of social security contributions (payroll taxes, pension and disability insurance contributions), in accordance with the Decree on Employment Incentives and granting incentives to employers according to the provision of the Law on Mandatory Social Insurance Contributions. Apart from incentives to private employers, public sector employers are also eligible for subsidies for recruiting persons with disabilities to fill newly opened positions.

The Law on Amendments to the Law on Compulsory Social Insurance (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia 62/06), determines the potential exemption of the obligation to pay contributions for social insurance, which are paid by the employer in period of 3 years, when hiring people with disabilities.

The National Employment Agency issues following types of tenders: grant-subsidies to employers to open new work posts; Grant-subsidies for self-employment to unemployed persons with disabilities; tenders to organize and carry out public works where persons with disabilities shall be employed (limited to period of six months so far, with several months gap between two tenders); reimbursement of salary of persons engaged to render professional support to persons with disabilities at work; participation in financing of training programmes for persons with disabilities for the requirements of employers; submission of claims for refund of adequate costs of adjustment of work post for employment of persons with disabilities; implementation of professional practice and submission of claims for grant of subsidies of salaries for employment of persons with disabilities without work experience.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2013-04-23

G. Statistics and data collection

G1. Official research

The Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia is special professional organization in the system of state administration of the Republic of Serbia that performs the expert tasks related to organization and conducting of the statistical surveys, methodology creation, collecting, processing, statistical analysis and publishing of the statistical data; data processing etc.

Statistical survey on pre-school institutions (PSV) collects data on children with developmental disability – by age, sex and duration of day-care and canteen and is published in annual report for current year. Other statistical surveys on educational institutions (primary, secondary) collect data from regular schools and school for pupils with developmental disabilities, without disability related indicators, with reports published annually, on the beginning or the end of school year. Survey on student enrolment (for higher education institutions) collects data on difficulties in carrying out every day student’s activities.

More disability related data and statistics is collected and produced within the field of social protection (responsible producer of official statistics - Republic Institute for Social Protection), through following surveys: Survey on minor and adult beneficiaries and services, measures and interventions of social protection; Survey on children and youth with developmental disabilities; Survey on adults with developmental disabilities; Survey on adults with mental disabilities; Survey on adults with disabilities and sense impairments. However, these statistics are limited to beneficiaries of the social protection institutions.

With the cooperation with the Republic Fund for Pension and Disability Insurance, statistics in the field of pension and disability insurance are collected through: Survey on beneficiaries of rights to pension and disability insurance; Survey on pension beneficiaries as of 31 December of the year for which report is drawn; Survey on pension beneficiaries who have realized the rights for the first time, and published reports annually, for previous year.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2013-04-23

G2. Census data

Disability, while not being explicitly mentioned, was introduced in Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011 questionnaire that took place in October 2011, and is represented with two questions within part titled “Functioning and Social Integration”. First question records “the difficulties in performing everyday activities due to problems with” following categories: vision, hearing, walking and climbing up stairs, memory/concentration, independence in dressing, eating, personal hygiene, communication. A second question refers to use of assistive aids, but offered answers are limited to orthopaedic and similar aids for persons with physical disability. Results of the census and data should be available in early-mid 2013.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2013-04-23

G3. Labour Force Survey

The Labour Force Survey is conducted by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. It was introduced in the Republic of Serbia in 1994, but become internationally comparable in 2004. In April 2008 the Survey was fully harmonized with recommendations of International Labour Organization and EuroStat requirements. Disability is introduced as an indicator in both “Active” (employed persons with disabilities) and “Inactive” (“desire to work but cannot work due to: illness or disability” and “do not want to work due to: illness or disability and care of children or adult disabled persons”) categories of population. Persons living in institutional households such as homes for adults with disabilities, homes for children and young people with disability and old/retired people homes are excluded from Labour Force Survey.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2013-04-24

G4. Disability equality indicators

In 2009-2010, the Social Inclusion and Poverty Reduction Unit and the Republic Statistical Office produced the report “Monitoring Social Inclusion in Serbia - Overview and Current Status of Social Inclusion in Serbia Based on Monitoring European and National Indicators”. The report proposes certain criteria for data disaggregation on national level, status of persons with disabilities and physical isolation (hospital treatment) being among them. The areas where necessity of introduction of disability indicators is proposed and emphasized are employment, health and deprivation of basic needs (material deprivation – housing and fulfilment of basic needs).

Links

Update date: Tue, 2013-04-23

H. Awareness and external action

H1. Awareness raising programs

We do not yet have information for this item

Update date: Thu, 2012-04-05

H2. Training for teachers

There are several faculties for initial teachers training in Serbia. The curriculum of all of them contains compulsory subject that is related to work with pupils with disabilities and it is usually on third academic year (out of four years of bachelor study). Still, it is based on the medical approach to disability and limitations rather than possibilities for education in inclusive environment. Discourse and terminology (used in the names of subjects, at least) is discriminatory and 'special needs' paradigm is widely present. Aims of the subject that are listed are mostly based on introducing specifics of most common disabilities, and rarely on elaborating measures of inclusive education that are being part of the recent education policies in Serbia. In addition, most of these faculties offer elective course “Special pedagogy”. Curriculum of faculties that educate future subject teachers (e.g. science etc.) do not contain subjects/courses that are related to inclusive education.

Besides initial training that all school teachers received on their university studies, the Law on Fundamentals of Education System obliges schools to provide in-service training and continuous professional development of their staff in different fields, inclusive education being one of them. In addition, the Rulebook on additional educational support to a child and pupil provides a list of indirect support measures that includes additional in-service training for school staff. There are 78 accredited programs (for school year 2012/13) for additional teachers’ training that are listed in the Catalog of the Institute for Improvement and Evaluation of Education, under the category “education of children with special needs”.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2013-04-24

H3. Training for lawyers

There are several state and private faculties of law in Serbia. Legal issues related to persons with disabilities are mainly introduced through subjects such as Human rights, Minority rights, International and European law and similar. None of the faculties has a course that specifically deals with the rights of persons with disabilities. The Faculty of Law of the University of Belgrade provides an elective course “Legal clinic” with a section dealing with discrimination, where future lawyers are introduced to all legal instruments regarding disability and can learn and practice through actual cases of discrimination.

In addition, law faculties, human rights and other non-governmental organizations provide various non-formal education programs and activities (summer schools etc.) on topics of human rights and discrimination of persons with disabilities.

Update date: Wed, 2013-04-24

H4. Training for doctors

We do not yet have information for this item

Update date: Thu, 2012-04-05

H5. Training for engineers

Accessibility and a universal design have been introduced to the curriculum of the Faculty of Technical Sciences at the University in Novi Sad through elective subject “Principles of Universal Design” on the third year of basic academic studies of Architecture and Urbanism. These topics are part of the elective curriculum of the Faculty of Architecture of the University of Belgrade as well. Still, most of the training for engineers is provided by the non-governmental organizations (disabled people organizations, human rights etc.).

Links

Update date: Wed, 2013-04-24

H6. International development aid

We do not yet have information for this item

Update date: Thu, 2012-04-05

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                    [alias] => 
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                    [path] => 
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                    [children] => 0
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            [5] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 9
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => croatia
                    [title] => Croatia
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 8
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            [6] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 10
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                    [rgt] => 13
                    [level] => 2
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                    [title] => Cyprus
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 9
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            [7] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 11
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                    [rgt] => 15
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => czech-republic
                    [title] => Czech Republic
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 10
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            [8] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 11
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            [9] => stdClass Object
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                    [lft] => 18
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [title] => Estonia
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 12
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            [10] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 14
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                    [lft] => 20
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 13
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            [11] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 15
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                    [rgt] => 23
                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 14
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            [12] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 15
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            [13] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 17
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                    [lft] => 26
                    [rgt] => 27
                    [level] => 2
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                    [title] => Greece
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 16
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [14] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 18
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 28
                    [rgt] => 29
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => hungary
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 17
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [15] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 19
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                    [lft] => 30
                    [rgt] => 31
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => ireland
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 18
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [16] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 20
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                    [rgt] => 33
                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 19
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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                    [children] => 0
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            [17] => stdClass Object
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                    [rgt] => 35
                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 20
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                    [children] => 0
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            [18] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 22
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                    [lft] => 36
                    [rgt] => 37
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => lithuania
                    [title] => Lithuania
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 21
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [19] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 23
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 38
                    [rgt] => 39
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => luxembourg
                    [title] => Luxembourg
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 22
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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                )

            [20] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 24
                    [parent_id] => 3
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                    [rgt] => 41
                    [level] => 2
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 23
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            [21] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 25
                    [parent_id] => 3
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                    [rgt] => 43
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => netherlands
                    [title] => Netherlands
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 24
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [22] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 26
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                    [rgt] => 45
                    [level] => 2
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 25
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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                )

            [23] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 27
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                    [rgt] => 47
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => portugal
                    [title] => Portugal
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 26
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                )

            [24] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 28
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                    [rgt] => 49
                    [level] => 2
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
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                    [ordering] => 27
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            [25] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 29
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => slovakia
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 28
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            [26] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 30
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => slovenia
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
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                    [ordering] => 29
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            [27] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 31
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                    [rgt] => 55
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => spain
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 30
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            [28] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 32
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                    [rgt] => 57
                    [level] => 2
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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            [29] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 33
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                    [rgt] => 59
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => united-kingdom
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                    [alias] => 
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            [30] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => candidate-acceding-countries
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                    [access] => 0
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                    [ordering] => 3
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            [31] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => fyr-macedonia
                    [title] => FYR Macedonia
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 33
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            [32] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
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                    [ordering] => 35
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            [33] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 37
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                    [rgt] => 67
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => serbia
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 36
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            [34] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 38
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => turkey
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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            [35] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => other-european-countries
                    [title] => Other European countries
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 4
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            [36] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 35
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                    [rgt] => 73
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => iceland
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            [37] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => liechtenstein
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            [38] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => norway
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        )

    [themes] => Array
        (
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                    [id] => 2
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 1
                    [rgt] => 20
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => a-un-convention-status
                    [title] => A. UN Convention status
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 1
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                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 9
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            [1] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 3
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                    [rgt] => 3
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a1-ratification-or-conclusion-of-the-un-convention
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 2
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 0000-00-00 00:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
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            [2] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 4
                    [parent_id] => 2
                    [lft] => 4
                    [rgt] => 5
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a2-ratification-or-accession-to-the-optional-protocol
                    [title] => A2. Ratification or accession to the Optional Protocol
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 3
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 0000-00-00 00:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
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            [3] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 5
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                    [rgt] => 7
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a3-declarations-reservations-and-objections
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 4
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 0000-00-00 00:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
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            [4] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 6
                    [parent_id] => 2
                    [lft] => 8
                    [rgt] => 9
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a4-comprehensive-review
                    [title] => A4. Comprehensive review
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 5
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
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            [5] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 7
                    [parent_id] => 2
                    [lft] => 10
                    [rgt] => 11
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a5-focal-point
                    [title] => A5. Focal point
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 6
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 0000-00-00 00:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
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            [6] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 8
                    [parent_id] => 2
                    [lft] => 12
                    [rgt] => 13
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a6-coordination-mechanism
                    [title] => A6. Coordination mechanism
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 7
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
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            [7] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 9
                    [parent_id] => 2
                    [lft] => 14
                    [rgt] => 15
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a7-independent-mechanism
                    [title] => A7. Independent mechanism
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 8
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
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            [8] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 10
                    [parent_id] => 2
                    [lft] => 16
                    [rgt] => 17
                    [level] => 2
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [50] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 52
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 100
                    [rgt] => 101
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h5-training-for-engineers
                    [title] => H5. Training for engineers
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 51
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [51] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 53
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 102
                    [rgt] => 103
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h6-international-development-aid
                    [title] => H6. International development aid
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 52
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

        )

    [results] => Array
        (
            [37] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [parent] => Candidate / Acceding countries
                    [location] => Serbia
                    [location_id] => 37
                    [location_slug] => serbia
                    [themes] => Array
                        (
                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A1. Ratification or conclusion of the UN Convention
                                    [theme_slug] => a1-ratification-or-conclusion-of-the-un-convention
                                    [theme_id] => 3
                                    [contents] => Serbia signed the UN CRPD on 17 December 2007. The Parliament ratified the Convention on the Sixth regular meeting of spring session of the National Parliament on 29 May 2009. The Law on Ratification of the CRPD was published in the 'Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia - International Treaties' No 42/2009 on 2 June 2009 and entered into force on the eighth day of its publication.
                                    [update_date] => 2015-03-13 18:49:26
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The Law on Ratification of The CRPD (Serbian)
                                                    [url] => http://www.ljudskaprava.gov.rs/sites/default/files/u3/konvencije/invaliditetom/zakon_o_ratifikaciji_konvencije_o_pravima_osoba_sa_invaliditetom.doc
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [4] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A2. Ratification or accession to the Optional Protocol
                                    [theme_slug] => a2-ratification-or-accession-to-the-optional-protocol
                                    [theme_id] => 4
                                    [contents] => Serbia signed the Optional Protocol to UNCRPD on 17 December 2007. The Parliament ratified the Optional Protocol on the Sixth regular meeting of spring session of the National Parliament on 29 May 2009. The Law on ratification of the Optional Protocol to CRPD was published in the 'Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia - International Treaties' No 42/2009 on 2 June 2009 and entered into force on the eighth day of its publication.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-12-07 09:40:40
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The Law on Ratification of the Optional Protocol of the CRPD (Serbian)
                                                    [url] => http://www.parlament.gov.rs/upload/archive/files/lat/pdf/zakoni/2009/978-09Lat.zip
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [5] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A3. Declarations, Reservations and Objections
                                    [theme_slug] => a3-declarations-reservations-and-objections
                                    [theme_id] => 5
                                    [contents] => There are no declarations, reservations or objection to the CRPD or Optional Protocol by Republic of Serbia.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-12-07 09:41:12
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                        )

                                )

                            [6] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A4. Comprehensive review
                                    [theme_slug] => a4-comprehensive-review
                                    [theme_id] => 6
                                    [contents] => The Persons with Disability Support Department of the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy and The National Organisation of Persons with Disabilities of Serbia published the Guide to the rights of persons with disabilities in the Republic of Serbia. First edition was published in May 2008 and the second edition in February 2011. The second edition provides information about the rights of persons with disabilities and the conditions for their realization, the use of the services of institutions in all systems of protection provided by the laws of the Republic of Serbia - social security, health protection, legal protection of children and the families, education system, labour and employment, pension and disability insurance, transportation, housing, prevention of discrimination etc.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-12-07 09:43:18
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The Guide through the rights of persons with disabilities in the Republic of Serbia – second edition (February 2011, Serbian)
                                                    [url] => http://www.noois.rs/pdf/Vodic_kroz_prava_OSI_u_rep_Srbiji.pdf
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The Guide through the rights of persons with disabilities in the Republic of Serbia – first edition (May 2008, Serbian) - 
                                                    [url] => http://www.minrzs.gov.rs/cms/doc/vodic/vodic.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [7] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A5. Focal point
                                    [theme_slug] => a5-focal-point
                                    [theme_id] => 7
                                    [contents] => The Office for Human and Minority Rights was established by the Government of the Republic of Serbia in August 2012 as governmental service responsible, among other activities, for monitoring compliance of national regulations with international treaties and other international acts on human and minority rights, and initiating amendments to national regulations. The Office coordinates preparation of national reports on the implementation of eight key international human rights treaties ratified by the Republic of Serbia, including the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, and coordinates the appearance of the state delegation in front of the relevant Committee.
                                    [update_date] => 2014-04-04 10:30:36
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Web page of The Office for Human and Minority Rights
                                                    [url] => http://www.ljudskaprava.gov.rs/sl/konvencije/konvencija-un-o-pravima-osoba-sa-invaliditetom
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Office for human and minority rights - Annual report on activities (August 2013) - 
                                                    [url] => http://www.ljudskaprava.gov.rs/images/pdf/ENG_Godisnji_izvestaj_o_radu_KLJMP_za_2013._godinu_5_08_2013.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [8] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A6. Coordination mechanism
                                    [theme_slug] => a6-coordination-mechanism
                                    [theme_id] => 8
                                    [contents] => The Council for Persons with Disabilities of the Government of the Republic of Serbia was initiated in 2002 and officially established by the Government in 2005, following the proposal of The Persons with Disability Support Department of the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy. The Council consists of representatives of relevant ministries and national organisations of persons with disabilities. It is an expert and advisory body on the social and economic status of persons with disabilities and initiates: coordination with state authorities in the process of adopting regulations; implementation of laws and regulations on the protection of persons with disabilities; ratification of international documents in the field of protection of persons with disabilities; establishment and implementation of cooperation with international organizations dealing with the protection of persons with disabilities.The mandate of the Council is four years, and the last Decision on establishment of the Council was adopted by the Government in March 2013 (published in Official Gazette of RS 28/2013). Latest Council includes only five representatives of persons with disabilities from traditional organizations, representing persons with disabilities by the type of disability.
                                    [update_date] => 2014-04-04 10:30:04
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The Decision on Establishment of the Council for Persons with Disabilities of Republic of Serbia (Serbian)
                                                    [url] => https://docs.google.com/file/d/0Byj7SkMd-KbYY05ZckZUM2VxdUk/edit
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The Persons with Disability Support Department of the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy - 
                                                    [url] => http://www.minrzs.gov.rs/latinica/sektor-za-zastitu-osoba-sa-invaliditetom.php
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [9] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A7. Independent mechanism
                                    [theme_slug] => a7-independent-mechanism
                                    [theme_id] => 9
                                    [contents] => There is no independent monitoring mechanism established for CRPD in the Republic of Serbia. The Law on Prevention of Discrimination established independent body – Commissioner for Protection of Equality and provides the mechanism of filing a complaint based on discrimination on the grounds of disability. The Law on the Ombudsman provides for a possibility to file a complaint to the Ombudsman in cases of violations of rights by governmental institutions and bodies and public companies. There is a deputy Ombudsman for persons with disabilities and elderly, and the Ombudsman’s Council for persons with disabilities and elderly, consisted of various experts and activists from disability movement. In addition, The Ombudsman provides Opinions and Recommendations on current legislation and law proposals.
                                    [update_date] => 2014-04-04 10:28:24
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Special Report on Discrimination of Persons with Disabilities in Republic of Serbia Commissioner for Protection of Equality (2013, Serbian)
                                                    [url] => http://www.ravnopravnost.gov.rs/images/files/Poseban%20izvestaj%20-%20osobe%20sa%20invaliditetom%20FINAL%209.5.2013.pdf
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Commissioner for Protection of Equality (Opinions and Recommendations in the complaint proceedings based on disability)
                                                    [url] => http://www.ravnopravnost.gov.rs/lat/invaliditet.php?idKat=21
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The Ombudsman (persons with disabilities and elderly page) 
                                                    [url] => http://www.ombudsman.osobesainvaliditetom.rs/index.php?lang=sr_YU
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [10] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A8. Official reporting
                                    [theme_slug] => a8-official-reporting
                                    [theme_id] => 10
                                    [contents] => The Republic of Serbia was due to submit the Initial report on the implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) in August 2011. The report was prepared under the coordination of The Directorate for Human and Minority Rights (Ministry for Human and Minority Rights at that time), with the input from relevant ministries, state institutions and non-governmental and disabled peoples’ organisations. The Government adopted the Initial report on 10 May 2012, submitted it to the UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and officially published it on 19 June 2012. It was deposited at the UN on 21 June 2014.

In July 2015 the National Organisation of Persons with Disabilities of Serbia (NOOIS) in partnership with CIL Serbia and the Centre for Society Orientation (COD) – Disability Rights Promotion, International Regional Centre for Europe submitted the Alternative report to the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. It covered Articles 5-7, 9, 11-13, 19, 20, 24, 27-29, 31, 33. The Committee created the List of issues in relation to the initial report of Serbia on 11 September 2015, which was responded both by the State on 2 February 2016. NOOIS and partners sent summery review of responses to Additional Questions of the CRPD related to the Initial Report of the Republic of Serbia on the implementation of the CRPD in March 2016. The Committee discussed the issues with both state and NOOIS delegation on 5 and 6 April 2016 and adopted the Concluded Observations on 10 April 2016, which are all included in the draft of the New National Strategy of the Improvement of Position of Persons with Disabilities and resulted with the equalisation of the length of sentences for the act of rape of disabled and non-disabled persons in the Article 128 of the Criminal Code and understanding of its essence ("Official Gazette" 85/2005, 88/2005 - corr., 107/2005 - corr., 72/2009, 111/2009, 121/2012, 104/2013, 108/2014 and 94/2016).

On 11 May 2017 The Government of the Republic of Serbia adopted the report on the implementation of the Committee recommendation 34 to prohibit medical interventions without the prior consent of persons with disabilities and to provide sufficient remedies and compensation to those subjected to such procedures and recommendation 54 to 'review the practice of the application of law to make sure legislation is not disadvantageous for persons with disabilities in terms of employment and labour market participation'. The state was requested to inform the Committee (in written form) on the implemented measures within a period of 12 months according to article 35.(2) of the Convention. The report brings relevant statistical data on the active measures of employment and professional rehabilitation of disabled persons in 2017, but it does not indicate enough on the structural changes. [update_date] => 2017-09-21 12:10:58 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => State reports to the UN Committee [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=154&DocTypeID=29 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Link to all UN reporting cycle documentation [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=154 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Initial report on the implementation of the UNCRPD in Serbia (English) [url] => http://www.ljudskaprava.gov.rs/sh/node/19868 ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Shadow report on the implementation of the UNCRPD in Serbia (English) [url] => http://cilsrbija.org/eng/ebib.php ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => List of issues in relation to the initial report of Serbia [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRPD%2fC%2fSRB%2fQ%2f1&Lang=en ) [5] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Responses to Additional Questions of the Committee [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRPD%2fC%2fSRB%2fQ%2f1%2fAdd.1&Lang=en ) [6] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Concluding Observations on the third periodic report of Serbia [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CCPR%2fC%2fSRB%2fCO%2f3&Lang=en ) [7] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Criminal Code (available only in Serbian) [url] => http://paragraf.rs/propisi/krivicni_zakonik.html ) [8] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Serbia regarding the implementation of the recommendations 34 and 54 [url] => http://www.ljudskaprava.gov.rs/sh/node/19868 ) [9] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Predlog Strategije unapređenja položaja OSI u Republici Srbiji za period do 2020. godine (available only in Serbian) [url] => http://www.noois.rs/zakoni-i-propisi-u-proceduri/123-strategija-unapredenja-polozaja-osoba-sa-invaliditetom-u-republici-srbiji-za-period-do-2020-godine/226-predlog-strategije-unapredenja-polozaja-osi-u-republici-srbiji-za-period-do-2020-godine ) ) ) [11] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => A. UN Convention status [theme_title] => A9. Shadow reporting [theme_slug] => a9-shadow-reporting [theme_id] => 11 [contents] => No report from civil society has been submitted to the UN Committee in parallel to the initial state report in 2015. However, Mental Disability Rights Initiative of Serbia (MDRI-S) published the report 'Practicing Universality of Rights: analysis of the implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in view of persons with intellectual disabilities in Serbia' in 2013 and is leading an informal Coalition for Deinstitutionalisation (mostly human rights NGOs) working on independent reporting on deinstitutionalisation and legal capacity issues. The Centre for Society Orientation published 'Monitoring of Disability Laws and Policies' and the 'Holistic report - Monitor your rights!' as a part of the Disability Rights Promotion International (DRPI) project. The Holistic report focused on five areas: accessibility – physical and information and communication; welfare system; education; work and employment; and health protection.
In July 2015 the National Organisation of Persons with Disabilities of Serbia (NOOIS) in partnership with CIL Serbia and the Centre for Society Orientation (COD) – Disability Rights Promotion, International Regional Centre for Europe submitted the Alternative report to the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
The Alternative Report directly impacted on the recommendations of the Committee and on legislative changes. However, the issues of the legal capacity, accessibility and social inclusion as part of social development are still challenges for all stakeholders beyond the strategies and action plans which are mostly synchronized with the Convention.
Meanwhile, Organisation ACED (Bosnia and Herzegovina) in partnership with IC LOTOS (Bosnia and Herzegovina), Union of Paraplegics (Montenegro) and CIL Serbia published the Report on Compliance of Legislative and Institutional Framework in the Republic of Serbia with the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and Recommendations for Harmonization in 2014 and the Report on Compliance of Legislative and Institutional Framework in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro with UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and Recommendations for Harmonization in 2015.
In June 2016 Human Rights Watch published a report on position of disabled children in Serbian institution titled 'It is My Dream to Leave This Place' which was sent to the UN Committee. [update_date] => 2017-10-10 19:26:36 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Civil society reports to the UN Committee [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=154&DocTypeID=14 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Practicing Universality of Rights, Mental Disability Rights International Serbia (2013, English) [url] => http://www.mdri-s.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/practicing-universality-of-rights.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Monitor your rights! Centre for Society Orientation (2013, Serbian) [url] => http://www.cod.rs/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/Holisticki_izvestaj_web1.pdf ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Centre for Independent Living of PWDs Serbia – reports) [url] => http://cilsrbija.org/eng/ebib.php ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Draft Strategy on improving the status of persons with disabilities in Serbia up to 2020 (which still has no English translation) [url] => http://www.noois.rs/zakoni-i-propisi-u-proceduri/123-strategija-unapredenja-polozaja-osoba-sa-invaliditetom-u-republici-srbiji-za-period-do-2020-godine/226-predlog-strategije-unapredenja-polozaja-osi-u-republici-srbiji-za-period-do-2020-godine ) [5] => stdClass Object ( [title] => 'It is My Dream to Leave This Place' Children with Disabilities in Serbian institutions [url] => https://www.hrw.org/report/2016/06/08/it-my-dream-leave-place/children-disabilities-serbian-institutions ) ) ) [13] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B1. Anti-discrimination legislation [theme_slug] => b1-anti-discrimination-legislation [theme_id] => 13 [contents] => The Constitution of the Republic of Serbia under the Article 21. (“Prohibition of discrimination”), proclaims that everyone is equal before the Constitution and law and shall have the right to equal legal protection, without discrimination. Under the Constitution, all direct or indirect discrimination based on any grounds, particularly on race, sex, national origin, social origin, birth, religion, political or other opinion, property status, culture, language, age, mental or physical disability shall be prohibited. Special measures which the Republic of Serbia may introduce to achieve full equality of individuals or group of individuals in a substantially unequal position compared to other citizens shall not be considered discrimination.

The Law on Prevention of Discrimination against Persons with Disabilities, adopted on 17 April 2006 (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia No 33/2006), was created with respect to UN Standard Rules on the Equalisation of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities and, at the time, draft version of CRPD. It recognizes and prohibits following forms of discrimination: direct discrimination, indirect discrimination and violation of the principle of equal rights and obligations. In addition, it identifies severe cases of discrimination and special cases of discrimination in the following spheres of life: proceedings before public authorities, membership in associations, access to facilities, public areas and services, health care services, education, employment and labour relations, access to public transport, marital and family relations. It prescribes actions to be taken to improve the status of persons with disabilities, members of their families and associations that are provided with special support necessary for exercising rights under the same conditions as for others, and contains provisions obliging state and local self-government bodies to undertake special measures to encourage equality of persons with disabilities (Arts. 32–38) and entitles persons with disabilities to sue the competent institutions that have failed to introduce such measures.

The Law on the Prohibition of Discrimination (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia No 22/2009), states that discrimination shall be considered to exist in case of conduct contrary to the principle of respect for the equal rights and freedoms of persons with disabilities in political, economic, cultural and other aspects of public, professional, private and family life (Article 26 - Discrimination of persons with disabilities). The Law prescribes judicial protection and provides the opportunity for the lawsuits to be initiated by the Commissioner and an organisation engaged in the protection of human rights or the rights of a certain group of people. In addition to the Law on Prevention of Discrimination of Persons with Disabilities, it provides the mechanism to verify the existence of discrimination (Article 46.) and the burden of providing evidence that no violation of the principle of equality or the principle of equal rights and obligations has occurred shall fall on the defendant.

The Strategy for Prevention and Protection against Discrimination was adopted in June 2013 and is aimed at prevention of discrimination and improvement of the position of nine vulnerable groups, including persons with disabilities. The Strategy recognizes seven special objectives – areas for policy interventions regarding persons with disabilities: labor, employment and vocational training; personal status and family life; abuse and neglect; education; social and health care services; the use of public spaces; promotion of participation in political and public life and access to justice.

Many other, specific laws adopted in the recent years in Serbia contain articles that prohibit discrimination on the ground of, inter alia, disability, including the Law on Fundamentals of Education System, the Labour Law, the Law on Social Protection, the Law on Health Care, the Law on Youth etc. [update_date] => 2014-04-04 10:25:51 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Law on the Prevention of Discrimination against Persons with Disabilities (Serbian) [url] => http://www.parlament.gov.rs/upload/archive/files/lat/doc/zakoni/2006/2246-05Lat.zip ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Law on the Prohibition of Discrimination (Serbian) [url] => http://www.parlament.gov.rs/upload/archive/files/lat/pdf/zakoni/2009/875-09Lat.zip ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Strategy for Prevention and Protection against Discrimination (Serbian) [url] => http://www.srbija.gov.rs/extfile/sr/192764/strategija_zastita_od_diskriminacije078_eng.zip ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Law on the Prohibition of Discrimination (English, unofficial translation by UNDP Serbia) [url] => http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---ilo_aids/documents/legaldocument/wcms_128034.pdf ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Constitution of the Republic of Serbia [url] => http://www.parlament.gov.rs/upload/documents/Constitution_%20of_Serbia_doc.doc ) ) ) [14] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B2. Recognition of legal capacity [theme_slug] => b2-recognition-of-legal-capacity [theme_id] => 14 [contents] => The Constitution of the Republic of Serbia (Article 52) states that every person in Serbia has the right to legal recognition. With the age of majority (18), a person gains the capacity to independently decide on his or her rights and obligations. The basic regulations regarding legal capacity and the placement of adults under guardianship are found in the Family Law (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia No 18/2005 and 72/2011) and in the Law on Non-Contentious Proceedings (Official Gazette of the Socialist Republic of Serbia, No. 25/82 and 48/1988 and Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia, No. 46/95 and 18/2005 - while there were changes to the Law, legal capacity relevant articles being mostly the same since 1982). The Family Law recognizes three types of limitations to the exercise of legal capacity: full deprivation of legal capacity, partial deprivation of legal capacity and extension of parental rights. According to the Law, adults shall be fully deprived of legal capacity in the event they are “incapable of sound reasoning due to an illness or psycho-physical developmental difficulties and are thus incapable of caring for themselves and protecting their rights and interests”. Legal capacity of these persons is equal to the legal capacity of a younger minor (child below the age of 14). The law also provides that an adult person who, as a result of illness or difficulties in psychological or physical development, “directly threatens his or her own rights and interests or the rights and interests of other persons” may be partially deprived of his or her legal capacity. Legal capacity of these persons is equal to that of an older minor (child between the age of 14 and 18). Parental rights may be extended before a child reaches the legal age of majority if a child “is incapable of taking care of and protecting his or her rights, or if he/she threatens his or her rights and interests through his or her actions, as a result of illness or difficulties in psychological or physical development”, which in practice is equal to full deprivation of legal capacity.

Persons fully deprived of their legal capacity may undertake only legal actions of minor significance and cannot undertake any legal actions by which they are assigned rights or obligations – deprivation automatically affects decision-making in many different areas of life and forbids exercising significant number of rights regulated by the Family Law (entering into marriage and exercising parental rights) and other laws such as: the Law on Health Protection (deciding on medical procedures), the Law on Organ Transplantation (receiving an organ transplant), the Law on Citizenship in the Republic of Serbia (gaining citizenship), the Law on Social Protection, the Law on Obligation Relations (entering into contracts, which by default prevents employment and buying or selling of property), the Law on the Election of the President of the Republic (voting), the Law on Volunteering, (volunteering) etc. [update_date] => 2012-12-07 09:34:18 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Family Law (Serbian) [url] => http://www.parlament.gov.rs/upload/archive/files/cir/pdf/zakoni/2005/pdf_008_4023-04.zip ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Kosana Beker (2010): “I Have the Right to Decide” (Pravo da donesem odluku), Initiative for Inclusion VelikiMali, Pančevo (Serbian) - comprehensive review of legal capacity related legislation in Serbia [url] => http://www.velikimali.org/doc/Publikacija.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Mental Disability Rights Initiative of Serbia (2012) [url] => http://mdri-s.org/files/Practicing%20Universality%20of%20Rights.pdf ) ) ) [15] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B3. Accessibility of voting and elections [theme_slug] => b3-accessibility-of-voting-and-elections [theme_id] => 15 [contents] => In the Constitution of the Republic of Serbia, under Article 52 (Electoral right), every citizen of the age of majority and with legal capacity shall have the right to vote and to be elected, and suffrage shall be universal and equal for all. The Law on the Elections of Members of Parliament (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia No 36/2011 and 104/2009) defines the rights of those unable able to vote at polling stattions ('blind, disabled or illiterate person') to bring a person who shall instead of him, in the manner determined by him, fill the ballot. Also, the Law prescribes the right to vote outside the voting place, with the same opportunity for assistance with filling in the ballot. The Law on Local Elections (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia No 129/2007) requires the Election Commission to determine voting places, taking into account the equal distribution of voters and accessibility. According to the Law on Unique Voters Registration List (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia No 104/2009 and 99/2011), citizens can vote in accordance with a place of temporary residence (as opposed to previous regulation that required voters to register according to their permanent residence), which in theory provides the right for persons living in health and social protection institutions to vote (although they would need to go to the municipal administration to register). In March 2012 (in a campaign prior to the May 2012 elections), the Ombudsman issued Opinion and recommendations to all state organs responsible for organizing elections to provide physical access to voting places, election materials in Braille (candidate lists, ballots etc) and all relevant information interpreted in sign language or simultaneously written texts. In addition, the Ombudsman recommended to local governments and election committees to update voters registration lists considering the residents of institutions and to organize voting in those institutions if necessary. [update_date] => 2012-12-09 14:12:20 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Law on Local Elections (Serbian) [url] => http://www.parlament.gov.rs/upload/archive/files/lat/pdf/zakoni/2007/4310-07-lat.zip ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Opinion of the Ombudsman on accessibility of elections (March 2012, Serbian) [url] => http://www.ombudsman.osobesainvaliditetom.rs/attachments/002_15_656_4705_12%20Invalidi%20biracka%20mesta.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Law on Local Elections (English, unofficial translation) [url] => http://minoritycentre.org/sites/default/files/law-local-elections-serbia.doc ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Law on Unique Voters Registration List (Serbian) [url] => http://www.parlament.gov.rs/upload/archive/files/lat/pdf/zakoni/2011/4129-11Lat.zip ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Law on the Elections of Members of Parliament (Serbian, includes all revisions) [url] => http://www.paragraf.rs/propisi/zakon_o_izboru_narodnih_poslanika.html ) ) ) [16] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B4. Official recognition of sign language [theme_slug] => b4-official-recognition-of-sign-language [theme_id] => 16 [contents] => Certain number of laws recognizes the existence and purpose of the Sign language. It has been officially recognized through the Law on Fundamentals of Education System, which requires that education of persons using sign language, i.e. special alphabet or other technical solutions, may be provided in the sign language and using means of the language and the Law on Higher Education (a higher education institution may organize and implement studies and/or certain parts of studies, in a sign language for students with disabilities). The proposal of the Law on the Use of Serbian Sign Language was available for public discussion and entered adoption procedures, but is recently withdrawn for further development – during public discussion the issue of education and licensing of sign language interpreters was raised. Draft law was developed by the Persons with Disability Support Department of the Ministry of Labour, Employment and Social Policy in cooperation with the Serbian Association of Deaf and Hard of Hearing and The Center for Advanced Legal Studies who developed and published the Model of the Law on Use of Sign Language. The Law should provide standardization of the Serbian sign language, introduce sign language interpretation service. [update_date] => 2014-04-04 10:25:21 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Model of the Law on Use of Sign Language, Center for Advanced Legal Studies (2013) - [url] => http://cups.rs/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Model-zakona-i-upotrebi-znakovnog-jezika.pdf ) ) ) [17] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B5. National disability strategy and action plan [theme_slug] => b5-national-disability-strategy-and-action-plan [theme_id] => 17 [contents] => Government of the Republic of Serbia adopted the Strategy for Improving the Position of Persons with Disabilities in the Republic of Serbia (Official Gazette of RS 01/07) in 2006. The strategic objective that this document sets out is the advancement of persons with disabilities to a position of equal citizenship, enjoying full rights and responsibilities. The time period for achievement of general and specific objectives of the Strategy is from 2007-2015. The task of the Strategy and Action Plan is to define the objectives, measures and activities that will contribute to the social model and an approach based on human rights incorporated in measures that affect the issues of the status of persons with disabilities.

The Action Plan for Implementation of the Strategy for Improving the Position of Persons with Disabilities for 2013-2015 has been developed under the leadership of National Organisation of Persons with Disabilities of Serbia and adopted in June 2013. [update_date] => 2014-04-04 10:24:52 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => TheStrategy for Improving the Position of Persons with Disabilities (Serbian) [url] => http://www.minrzs.gov.rs/doc/inval/Strategija%20unapredjenja%20polozaja%20osoba%20sa%20invaliditetom.doc ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Action plan for Implementation of the Strategy for Improving the Position of Persons with Disabilities for 2013-2015 (Serbian) - [url] => http://www.srbija.gov.rs/extfile/sr/194781/Akcioni_plan_Strategija_za_osobe_sa_inv088_lat.zip. ) ) ) [19] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => C. Accessibility [theme_title] => C1. Transport accessibility [theme_slug] => c1-transport-accessibility [theme_id] => 19 [contents] => The Law on Prevention of Discrimination Against Persons with Disabilities provides general framework for anti-discrimination and definition of discrimination on the ground of disability within transportation services and in all modes of transport (Article 27 - Discrimination in relation to transport), including refusal to carry the passenger with a disability, refusal of the crew of the vehicle to provide physical assistance to passengers with disabilities and determining the unfavourable conditions of transport for passengers with disabilities (in particular the payment terms).

The Law on planning and construction and The Regulation on technical accessibility standards contain provisions on accessibility of railway and bus stations, bus stops and airports as public places.The Law on Air Traffic contains provisions that regulate general obligation of airports for accessibility of ground services, such as assistance to passengers with disability, which must be provided without discrimination and in a way most suitable for the passengers.

There are only three railway stations in Serbia that are accessible to wheelchair users (out of five that are physically accessible) and that are equipped with ribbed rubber walking pads and orientation panels for blind persons (out of six that provide information to passengers in this format) - Belgrade, Novi Sad and Subotica. Guide dogs are recognised as companions/assistants and allowed, although there is no Law on guide and assistant dogs in Serbia (there is certain level of public awareness of the purpose of the guide dogs, but in many parts of the private and public sector they are still treated as pets). There is only one train accessible to wheelchair users (270/271 Belgrade – Praha hl.n. – Belgrade). The passengers using wheelchairs are given a specified place in the coach technically equipped for their transport, reserved in advance, and are provided with the parking place for their vehicle and access without stairs through special mobile elevators that lift people in wheelchairs to enter the coach and exit from the coach.

In major cities such as Belgrade (the capitol), Novi Sad, Nis, Kragujevac, city self-government organizes “specialized” transportation with accessible vans, which is only available for members of certain traditional disabled peoples’ associations, with limited capacities and coverage (e.g. not covering suburban municipalities within the city). In addition, there are accessible (marked, low-floored) buses, trolleys and trams within city public transportation networks in respective cities, while many stops are not adjusted for proper use of accessible vehicles. [update_date] => 2013-02-18 09:57:45 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Law on Air Traffic (2010, Serbian) [url] => http://www.parlament.rs/upload/archive/files/lat/pdf/zakoni/2010/2073-10Lat.zip ) ) ) [20] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => C. Accessibility [theme_title] => C2. Built environment accessibility [theme_slug] => c2-built-environment-accessibility [theme_id] => 20 [contents] => The Law on Planning and Construction (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia No 72/2009, 81/2009, 64/2010 and 24/2011) defines standards of accessibility as “mandatory technical measures, standards and conditions of design, planning and construction which ensure unhindered movement and access for persons with disabilities, children and the elderly'. It provides obligations, planning rules and professional supervision that include controls and checks on the quality of execution of all types of work and application of regulations, standards and technical norms, including standards of accessibility. The minister prescribes in more detail the technical standards of accessibility. The Law also prescribes penalties for the investor and the responsible person if the access to the built facility for persons with disability is not provided, in compliance with accessibility standards.

The Regulation on Technical Accessibility Standards (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia No 19/2012), provides the technical accessibility standards to ensure the unhindered movement of children, the elderly, people with walking impairments and persons with disabilities, developed urban-technical requirements for the planning of public space, traffic and pedestrian areas, access to buildings (residential, public and etc.) as well as special devices in them. Nevertheless, the Regulation was created and adopted without public discussion or any consultations with disabled people’s organisations or other relevant stakeholders from civil and professional sectors. This left the standards unclear or not developed at all in certain areas, such as improvement of accessibility of existing (already built) facilities and the parts that define the required content of an architectural project or accessibility standards for the elderly and children. The Ombudsman issued the Opinion that Ministry of Urban planning and Construction must harmonize this Regulation with CRPD, the Law on Prevention of Discrimination Against Persons with Disabilities and other positive legislation of Serbia. [update_date] => 2012-12-07 09:38:40 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Law on Planning and Construction (Serbian) [url] => http://www.parlament.gov.rs/upload/archive/files/lat/pdf/zakoni/2009/2364-09-lat.zip ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Regulation on Technical Accessibility Standards (Serbian) [url] => http://www.ombudsman.osobesainvaliditetom.rs/attachments/023_Microsoft%20Word%20-%20Pravilnik%20o%20tehnickim%20standardima%20pristupacnosti.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Amendments to The Regulation on Technical Accessibility Standards by National Organization of Persons with Disabilities of Serbia [url] => http://noois.rs/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=158:predlozi-za-izmene-i-dopune-pravilnika-o-tehnickim-standardima-pristupacnosti&catid=97&Itemid=504 ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Opinion of the Ombudsman on The Regulation on technical accessibility standards [url] => http://www.ombudsman.osobesainvaliditetom.rs/attachments/089_Pravilnik%20MISLJENJE.pdf ) ) ) [21] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => C. Accessibility [theme_title] => C3. ICT and Web accessibility [theme_slug] => c3-ict-and-web-accessibility [theme_id] => 21 [contents] => The Electronic Communications Law ('Official Gazette of RS', 44/2010) bases the objectives and principles regulating relations in the field of electronic communications on ensuring the availability of universal service and ensuring the maximum benefit to all citizens in the Republic of Serbia, to meet the needs of specific social groups, including people with disabilities, the elderly and vulnerable customers. The Law calls for special measures for persons with disabilities and vulnerable customers to ensure equal opportunities for access to publicly available telephone services, including making calls to emergency services, information services and public telephone directories. According to the Law, the Republic Agency for Electronic Communications may set specific requirements for securing the accessibility of certain electronic communications services for people with disabilities, and is responsible for analysis of requirements for ensuring equal opportunities to use services for persons with disabilities.

The Law onfree access to information of public importance ('Official Gazette of RS', no. 120/2004, 54/2007, 104/2009 and 36/2010)regulates the obligation of the state body to publish, at least annually, a directory with basic information about rules and decisions of state bodies regarding publicity of the body, which includes working hours, contact details, accessibility for persons with disabilities, access to sessions, permissibility of audio and video recording etc.

The Law on Broadcasting (Official Gazette of the RS No. 42/02, 97/04, 76/05, 79/05, 62/06 85/06. 86/06 and 41/09) mentions disability only in the context of exemption from the obligation to pay theradio-television subscription to public broadcasting services.

The National Broadcasting Agency – National TV Channel (RTS) has increased the number of accessible programs in recent years. The TV show “Place for Us” has been running for two years now, covering a wide range of disability related issues. This programme has sign language interpretation during all 30 minutes of its showing. Also, there is news with sign language interpretation on National TV Channel every day of around 10 minutes. Since July 2011, in cooperation with the Association 'Homer' and the Official Gazette of Republic of Serbia, The Agency broadcasts movies synchronized and adapted for the visually impaired and blind people, once a month. In addition, RTS provided sign language interpretation for the presidential candidates’ debate at the end of the recent elections in Republic of Serbia (May 2012).

There are other TV stations with national or local broadcasting that have introduced the practice of having at least one news programme with sign language interpretation during the day and special programmes that are dealing with disability issues (such as the national RTV B92 and Studio B, that covers the wider area of the city of Belgrade). [update_date] => 2013-02-18 09:58:12 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Electronic Communications Law (Serbian) [url] => http://www.rra.org.rs/uploads/useruploads/PDF/5004-zakon_o_elektronskim_komunikacijama.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Law on free access to information of public importance (Serbian) [url] => http://www.mos.gov.rs/sites/default/files/zak.o.s.p.inf_.od_.jz_.zip ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Law on Broadcasting (Serbian) [url] => http://www.rra.org.rs/uploads/useruploads/PDF/5524-zakon_o_radiodifuziji.pdf ) ) ) [23] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D1. Choice of living arrangements [theme_slug] => d1-choice-of-living-arrangements [theme_id] => 23 [contents] => The Law on Social Protection (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia No. 24/2011), inter alia, envisages provision of support services for independent living in the community through organising personal assistance services at the local level and supported housing, as well as various daily services which include daily care and help in the household. Article 4 of this law states that each individual has the right to the social protection indispensable for overcoming social and life barriers and enabling conditions for satisfying one’s basic life needs.

The Law on Public Housing (Official Gazette of RS No 72/2009) governs the conditions for sustainable development of public housing and the method of provision and use of funds for development of public housing, as well as other issues of importance for public housing. The funds for public housing shall be used, inter alia, to incite various forms of provision of apartments for public housing of persons with disabilities, individual and family of persons with disabilities and civilians disabled during war, as well as supported housing for persons with disabilities. Disability is one of the basic criteria for establishment of priority list for settlement of housing needs of persons who accomplish the right to resolution of housing needs.

The Strategy for Improving the Position of Persons with Disabilities in the Republic of Serbia, one of the specific objectives (Objective 11) within the goal 3 “Develop and implement policy actions and programmes, particularly in the areas of education, employment, work and housing, which provide equal opportunities for persons with disabilities and encourage independence, personal development and active life in all areas” calls for improvement of the quality of life of persons with disabilities by creating opportunities for their free choice of living conditions and lifestyles in an environment of their choice. Planned activities for reaching this objective include development and implementation of programs for assisted living in community, public education programs and independent living training for persons with disabilities and family rights programs. [update_date] => 2013-04-24 16:22:28 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Law on Social Protection (2011, Serbian) [url] => http://www.parlament.rs/upload/archive/files/lat/doc/zakoni/2011/3555_10LAT.zip ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Law on Public Housing (2009, Serbian) - [url] => http://www.parlament.rs/upload/archive/files/lat/doc/zakoni/2009/1602-08-lat.zip ) ) ) [24] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D2. De-institutionalisation [theme_slug] => d2-de-institutionalisation [theme_id] => 24 [contents] => The Strategy for Development of Social Protection (2005) identifies many of limitations of social protection system in Serbia and identifies that persons with disabilities should be taken care of in the least restrictive environment, according to their condition. One of the priorities of the reform of the social protection system is to improve their protection through the processes of preventing institutional care, gradual decrease of institutions’ capacities, raising the quality of institutional care and creating possibilities for users to leave institutions and go to the natural or less restrictive environment. Specific Goal 2 of the Strategy is the realization of a network of community services. This strategy’s goals and objectives were mostly addressed by the enactment of the new Law on Social Protection (March 2011), and accompanying bylaws (some of them still being underdevelopment).

The Strategy for Improving the Position of Persons with Disabilities, in the Measure 4 of Specific Objective 5: To improve the service and support system for users in accordance to their needs, refers to de-institutionalisation and states that social, health and other services for persons with disabilities must fully respect the principle of accessibility of services within the local community “with full implementation of the process of de-institutionalisation.”, as well as in the Measure 1 of Specific Objective 6: “To strengthen the families of persons with disabilities by providing adequate support for appropriate services helping to integration persons with disabilities into the community”.

The Law on Social Protection (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia, No.24/2011) redefines institutional placement as only one form of social services. Institutional placement is provided to users for whom staying in the family, community services or family placement either cannot be provided, or are not in their best interest. Children younger than three years of age cannot be placed in institutional care except in cases of particularly justified reasons, and children cannot spend more than two months there, except with the approval of the relevant ministry. Still, the definitions of “best interest” and “particularly justified reasons” leaves enough space for interpretations which could undermine the efforts in the direction of de-institutionalization provided by the Law. [update_date] => 2013-04-24 16:22:54 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Strategy for Development of Social Protection (2005, Serbian) [url] => http://www.inkluzija.gov.rs/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/Strategija-razvoja-socijalne-zastite.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Law on Social Protection (2011, Serbian) [url] => http://www.parlament.rs/upload/archive/files/lat/doc/zakoni/2011/3555_10LAT.zip ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Mental Disability Rights Initiative - Serbia (July 2012) - Practicing universality of rights: analysis of the implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in view of persons with intellectual disabilities in Serbia [url] => http://mdri-s.org/files/Practicing%20Universality%20of%20Rights.pdf ) ) ) [25] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D3. Quality of social services [theme_slug] => d3-quality-of-social-services [theme_id] => 25 [contents] => The Article 69 (Social protection) of the Constitution of the Republic of Serbia states that social protection is provided according to the principles of social justice, humanity and respect of human dignity, and that disabled people (“invalids” in Serbian version), war veterans and victims of war are entitled to special protection in accordance with the law.

The Law on Social Protection (2011), in the Article 5 defines social services as “activities of support and assistance to users and their families for improving or retaining their quality of life, removing or mitigating the risk of negative life conditions, and creating the conditions for living independently within the community” (emphasis added). According to the law, social services should be provided primarily in a direct and least restrictive environment, while choosing those services that enable the user to remain in his or her community. The law introduces the principle of accessibility (physical, geographical and economical) and individual approach and provides a list of social services, grouped into five categories: assessment and planning services, day services within the community, independent living support services (including supported living, personal assistance, training for independent living, other types of support necessary for active participation in society), counselling and socio-educational services, and accommodation services including placement into residential institutions.

Rulebooks and other bylaws that should accompany the Law on Social Protection are under development are expected to regulate the quality standards for social services and service providers. [update_date] => 2013-04-24 16:23:48 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Constitution of the Republic of Serbia – Section II - Human and minority rights and freedoms [url] => http://www.srbija.gov.rs/cinjenice_o_srbiji/ustav_odredbe.php?id=218 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Law on Social Protection (2011, Serbian) - [url] => http://www.parlament.rs/upload/archive/files/lat/doc/zakoni/2011/3555_10LAT.zip ) ) ) [26] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D4. Provision of assistive devices at home [theme_slug] => d4-provision-of-assistive-devices-at-home [theme_id] => 26 [contents] => The right to assistive devices is regulated mostly within the system of health protection, through the Law on Health Insurance (Official Gazette of Republic of Serbia No 107/2005, 57/2011 and 119/2012). The eligibility to certain type of aids is regulated by the Rulebook on medical-technical aids that are provided from the compulsory health insurance (Official Gazette of Republic of Serbia No 7/13). Other regulation on assistive devices include the Rulebook on Orthopaedic Aids for Disabled Veterans (Official Gazette of Republic of Serbia No 45/09) and the Rulebook on medical indications for orthopaedic and other aids for disabled veterans (Official Gazette of Republic of Serbia No 37/2000). In addition, The Law on Disability and Pension Insurance (Official Gazette of Republic of Serbia No 34/03, 64/04, 84/04, 85/05, 101/05, 63/06, 5/09, 107/09, 101/10) provides the right of blind persons to assistive devices.

In most cases, administrative procedures are long and include public procurement procedures, while the quality of aids is not sufficient (outdated types/models in many cases). There is an option provided within the Law on Value Added Tax (Official Gazette of Republic of Serbia No 93/2012) and The Customs Law (Official Gazette of Republic of Serbia No 18/2010 and 111/2012), to import assistive devices tax and other fees free. [update_date] => 2013-04-24 16:24:07 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Rulebook on medical-technical aids that are provided from the compulsory health insurance (Internal updated text from The Republic Fund of Health Insurance, January 2013) [url] => http://www.lat.rfzo.rs/download/pravilnik_pomagala-jan2013-lat.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Law on Health Insurance (2005, Serbian) - [url] => http://www.parlament.rs/upload/archive/files/lat/pdf/zakoni/2005/2519-05-lat.zip ) ) ) [27] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D5. Availability of personal assistance schemes [theme_slug] => d5-availability-of-personal-assistance-schemes [theme_id] => 27 [contents] => We do not yet have information for this item [update_date] => 2012-04-05 10:08:54 [links] => Array ( ) ) [28] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D6. Income maintenance [theme_slug] => d6-income-maintenance [theme_id] => 28 [contents] => We do not yet have information for this item [update_date] => 2012-04-05 10:08:54 [links] => Array ( ) ) [29] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D7. Additional costs [theme_slug] => d7-additional-costs [theme_id] => 29 [contents] => We do not yet have information for this item [update_date] => 2012-04-05 10:08:54 [links] => Array ( ) ) [30] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D8. Retirement income [theme_slug] => d8-retirement-income [theme_id] => 30 [contents] => The Law on pension and disability insurance (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia No 34/2003, 64/2004 – Supreme Court decision, 84/2004, 85/2005, 101/2005, 63/2006 - Supreme Court decision, 5/2009, 107/2009 and 101/2010) regulates compulsory and voluntary pension and disability insurance for cases of ageing, disability, death or physical impairment.

In cases where complete lack of working capability is determined, it is possible to receive disability pension up until the age required to realize the right to old age pension if the reason for disability is injury at work or professional disease regardless of the length of pensionable service or the disability is a consequence of disease or injury unrelated to work, in which case at least five years of pensionable service are required (three years for persons under the age of 30, or two and one respectively for persons under the ages 25 and 20). Follow-up examination must be performed within three years, with the exception of persons over 58 years old and those whose medical diagnoses are such that they are not likely to experience working capability improvement. Employed person with disability who gets fired against his/her will is entitled to half of disability pension upon termination of National Employment Agency benefits. In addition, the Article 119 of the Labour Law obliges employer to pay severance amounting to at least three average salaries if a person became disability pension user while employed. [update_date] => 2013-04-24 16:24:30 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on pension and disability insurance (2011, Serbian) [url] => http://www.pio.rs/images/dokumenta/Zakoni/zakon_o_pio_2011_lat.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on compulsory social insurance contributions [url] => http://www.pio.rs/images/dokumenta/Zakoni/zakon%20o%20doprinosima%20za%20obavezno%20socijalno%20osiguranje-lat.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on pension and disability contributions payment for some categories of insurant–employees [url] => http://www.pio.rs/images/dokumenta/Zakoni/zakon%20o%20uplati%20doprinosa%20za%20pio%20za%20pojedine%20kategorije%20osiguranika-lat.pdf ) ) ) [32] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E1. Special schools [theme_slug] => e1-special-schools [theme_id] => 32 [contents] => The Law on Fundamentals of the Education System (2009) provides mandatory enrolment of all children in mainstream elementary schools (based on the place of residence in school area). Only after several months of attendance of mainstream school and application of all available measures of inclusive education (individualisation and application of an individual education plans), it can be recommended to transfer a child with disability to special school. Education in schools for special education of students with disabilities is organised mostly by the type of disability, which means that students with the same type of disability are segregated into special schools or special classes with little or no interaction with other students. Total number of schools for special education in Serbia is 48, of which 13 are in Belgrade. Each of the 17 school directorates have at least one such school. Most of the elementary schools (14) and combined elementary and secondary schools (20) are for the education of pupils with mental disabilities. There are also schools for education of pupils with hearing impairment (8), blind pupils (2, both in Belgrade) and pupils with behavioural difficulties, moving difficulties and children on prolonged hospitalization. The total number of special classes in mainstream schools is 314. Based on the Law on Fundamentals of the Education System, schools for special education have an opportunity toprovide additional support in the education of children, pupils and adults with disabilities in the educational group, or other school and family in accordance with the criteria and standards set by the Minister. It is anticipated that, depending on the needs of the program that is implemented, additional support and professional activities in school can also be perform by special education teacher, speech therapist, social worker and adult educator. [update_date] => 2012-12-09 14:30:19 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Law on Fundamentals of Education System (2009, Serbian) [url] => http://www.mpn.gov.rs/propisi/dokumenti/propis-9-Zakon_o_osnovama_sistema_obrazovanja_i_vaspitanja.doc ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Law on Amendments t o the Law on Fundamentals of Education System (2011, Serbian): [url] => http://www.parlament.gov.rs/upload/archive/files/lat/pdf/zakoni/2011/2389-11Lat.zip ) ) ) [33] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E2. Mainstream schools [theme_slug] => e2-mainstream-schools [theme_id] => 33 [contents] => According to the Constitution of Republic of Serbia, article 71 [1], elementary education is obligatory and free to everyone and secondary education is free. The Law on Prevention of Discrimination against Persons with Disabilities defines general obligation of the state administration, autonomous province and local self-government responsible for education to provide measures aimed for education of persons with disabilities to become an integral part of the general education system (Article 36 - Measures to ensure equality in the field of education).

Legislative framework for education is provided by The Law on Fundamentals of Education System (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia No 72/2009 and 52/2011). According to the Law it is mandatory to enrol all children in mainstream elementary schools. The preparatory preschool program is obligatory for every child and it can be provided by pre-school institution or elementary school. Children enrolled in school can be tested, but only after several months of attendance of mainstream school and application of all available measures of inclusive education, it can be recommended to transfer child with disabilities to school for children with disabilities (former special schools). Measures of inclusive education that are provided by the Law are further described in The Rulebook on additional educational, health and social support to the child and pupil and The Rulebook on detailed guidelines for determining the right to the individual education plan (IEP). In addition, the Law introduces the role of pedagogical assistant.

The Rulebook on additional educational, health and social support to the child and student (Official Gazette of Republic of Serbia No 63/2010 - The Rulebook was adopted by the Ministry of Education (, Science and Technological Development), Ministry of Health and Ministry of Labour (, Employment) and Social Policy) regulates an assessment of needs for additional support in the educational system, through the operation of the Interdepartmental Commission (IC), at the local level. The Rulebook states that all assessments must be in accordance to best interest of the child and through holistic approach.

The Rulebook on detailed guidelines for determining the right to the individual education plan (IEP), and its implementation and evaluation (Official Gazette of Republic of Serbia No 72/09 and 76/2010), enables children from vulnerable groups to be educated within the regular educational system in accordance with their abilities. There are tree levels of adjustment of educational process to children that have need of additional support. Pedagogical profile of a student is the first document in assessment process in which pupils and disabilities are well described together with assessment of needs, with holistic and social approach to description. The first level of adjustment, individualisation, is characterised as removal of physical and communicational barriers. It can be provided without any administration and changed in any moment according to the needs of child. Individual education plan (IEP) can be developed on two levels, IEP with adjusted educational standards and IEP with changed educational standards. Both levels have specific procedures and regulations in which they can be applied, including written approval of the parent/caregiver.

The Law on Textbooks and Other Teaching Materials(Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia No 50/2011)prescribes that a textbook, i.e. teaching materials used for customised education of the blind and visually impaired, may be written in Braille, in an electronic form or in formats customized to the blind and visually impaired such as large print, sound recordings or photo enlargements or other format and medium.

[1]http://www.srbija.gov.rs/cinjenice_o_srbiji/ustav_odredbe.php?id=102 [update_date] => 2013-04-23 19:27:04 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on Fundamentals of Education System (2009, Serbian) [url] => http://www.parlament.gov.rs/upload/archive/files/lat/pdf/zakoni/2009/2282-09-lat.zip ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Snezana Lazarevic (2012) – Inclusive Education – Frequently Asked Questions, Mental Disability Rights Initiative Serbia, Belgrade [url] => http://mdri-s.org/files/Brosura_Inkluzivno_obrazovanje.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Law on Preschool Education (2010, Serbian) [url] => http://www.parlament.gov.rs/upload/archive/files/lat/pdf/zakoni/2010/2490-09%20lat.zip ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Law on Textbooks and Other Teaching Materials (2009, Serbian) [url] => http://www.parlament.rs/upload/archive/files/lat/doc/zakoni/2009/2283-09-lat.zip ) ) ) [34] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E3. Sign language and Braille in school [theme_slug] => e3-sign-language-and-braille-in-school [theme_id] => 34 [contents] => The Law on Fundamentals of Education System prescribes that education of persons using sign language, i.e. special alphabet or other technical solutions, may be provided in the sign language and using means of the language (Article 9). The Law on Textbooks and Other Teaching Materials (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia No 50/2011) prescribes that a textbook, i.e. teaching materials used for customised education of blind and visually impaired people, may be written in Braille, in an electronic form or in customized formats such as large print, sound recordings or photo enlargements, or other format and medium. While special schools for blind and visually impaired children provide lessons in Braille, those for deaf and hard of hearing children (both elementary and secondary) do not teach Serbian or other sign language. [update_date] => 2012-12-09 14:35:40 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Law on Textbooks and Other Teaching Materials (2011, Serbian) [url] => http://inkluzivno-obrazovanje.rs/files/Zakon_o_udzbenicima_i_drugim_nastavnim_sredstvima.doc ) ) ) [35] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E4. Vocational training [theme_slug] => e4-vocational-training [theme_id] => 35 [contents] => Vocational training is determined by the Law on Fundamentals of Education System. The Article 27 of the Law states that a secondary education can be delivered in gymnasium (general and specialized gymnasiums), vocational school, joint school (gymnasium and vocational or music school), arts school, secondary school for the education of adults and secondary school for students with developmental disabilities. The Article 69 of the law states that education in secondary schools can be also delivered through individual education plan. According to the same law (article 83) student with disabilities can pass final exam of vocational training (“Matura”) which is adjusted to his/her abilities and in accordance with individual education plan as it was used during the training.

Also, the Strategy for the Development of Vocational Education and Training in the Republic of Serbia was adopted by the Serbian Government in 2006. The National Action Plan for the Implementation of the Strategy for the Development of the Vocational Education and Training in the Republic of Serbia 2009-2015 was developed accordingly, and adopted in 2008. The Action plan lists further development and improvement of vocational education in order to address the needs of labour market development and the needs of different target groups as one of the priorities. Among six priorities for further development of curricula defined by the Action plan, special tasks have been defined regarding the development and improvement of programmes in the languages of national minorities and for the students with disabilities within the priority “Further modernization of the contents, organization and methods of teaching, teachers’ work and schools which includes further development and innovation of modular education programmes based on learning outcomes”. [update_date] => 2013-04-23 19:27:37 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Strategy for the Development of Vocational Education and Training in the Republic of Serbia [url] => http://www.vetserbia.edu.rs/Strateski%20dokumenti/Usvojene%20strategije%20razvoja/VET%20Strategy.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The National Action Plan for the Implementation of the Strategy for the Development of the Vocational Education and Training in the Republic of Serbia 2009-2015 - [url] => http://www.vetserbia.edu.rs/Strateski%20dokumenti/Akcioni%20planovi/ACTION%20PLAN%20VET.pdf ) ) ) [36] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E5. Higher education [theme_slug] => e5-higher-education [theme_id] => 36 [contents] => The Law on Higher Education, adopted in August 2005, for the first time recognized students with disabilities as a special category of students. The right to higher education is applicable to all persons who completed their secondary education irrespective of, inter alia existence of a sensory or movement disability. The founder shall provide funds to a higher education institution for, inter alia, funding of the equipment and conditions for studies of students with disability (Article 59). For students with disabilities, a higher education institution may organize and implement studies and/or certain parts of studies, in a sign language (Article 80 – this still haven’t become practice on any higher education institution). A student with disability shall have the right to take an exam in the manner adapted to his/her abilities, in accordance with the general act of a higher education institution (Article 90).The Law on Pupil and Student Standards (Article 4) (Official Gazette of Republic of Serbia, No. 18/2010). identified vulnerable groups in higher education and defined support measures for widening access and completion of higher education (accommodation, food, student loans, student scholarships, scholarships for gifted students, rest and recovering, cultural, arts, sports and recreational activities and information) – students with disabilities among total of eight groups with lower socio-economic background.The Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development awards scholarships to students with disabilities in the amount that covers the costs of food and accommodation in the student dormitory. On average, each year about 120 students with disabilities are supported (126 in school year 2010/2011).Support for students with disabilities is provided by associations of students with disabilities in bigger university centres. University of Belgrade established the Centre for Students with Disabilities in 2008. Associations and Centre provide assistance to students with disabilities in regulating their status on faculties (tuition fee exemption etc.). Until school year 2011/2012, there was an affirmative action for students with disabilities in applying for places in student dorms (which were not accessible in most cases), even the special dormitory for students with disabilities in Belgrade. New reconstructions will provide accessibility in all dormitories and students with disabilities will apply for the place in any dormitory in general call for applications. [update_date] => 2012-12-09 14:33:39 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Law on Higher Education (2005, Serbian) [url] => http://www.parlament.gov.rs/upload/archive/files/lat/pdf/zakoni/2005/pdf-1616-05-lat.zip ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Law on Pupil and Student Standards (2009, Serbian) [url] => http://www.parlament.gov.rs/upload/archive/files/lat/pdf/zakoni/2010/2504-09%20lat.zip ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Report regarding the Bologna Process implementation 2009-2012 Serbia (English) [url] => http://www.ehea.info/Uploads/National%20reports/Serbia.pdf ) ) ) [38] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F1. Non-discrimination in employment [theme_slug] => f1-non-discrimination-in-employment [theme_id] => 38 [contents] => The Constitution of the Republic of Serbia, in the Article 60 - Right to work, guarantees the right to work and free choice of occupation. Persons with disabilities, together with women and youth have been identified as groups that should be provided with special protection at work and special work conditions.

The Law on Prevention of Discrimination against Persons with Disabilities contains section “Discrimination related to Employment and Work” which defines acts of discrimination against person with disability related to job seeking, employment, salary, adjustments of workplace and treatment of employees with disabilities. This section also introduces affirmative measures as non-discriminatory acts.

The Labour Law (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia No 24/05, 61/05 and 54/2009), in article 18. prohibits direct and indirect discrimination against persons seeking employment and employees in respect to their health status or disability, inter alia, and identifies provision of special measures, assistance and protection of disabled persons and persons on leave for special childcare as non-discrimination. The Labour Law does not prescribe any special protection against cancellation of employment contract based on disability, but it contains provisions on illegal cancellation of employment contract and how labour inspectors shall act in case of illegal cancellation of employment contract, which are valid for all employees.

The Law on Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment of Persons with Disabilities (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia No 36/2009) introduced the obligation to employ persons with disabilities as the principle of affirmative action aiming to increase participation of persons with disabilities in the labour market. [update_date] => 2013-04-23 19:28:15 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Law on Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment of Persons with Disabilities (2009, Serbian) [url] => http://www.parlament.rs/upload/archive/files/lat/doc/zakoni/2009/2241-08Lat.zip ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Constitution of the Republic of Serbia – Section II - Human and minority rights and freedoms [url] => http://www.srbija.gov.rs/cinjenice_o_srbiji/ustav_odredbe.php?id=218 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Labour Law (2005, Serbian) [url] => http://www.parlament.rs/upload/archive/files/lat/doc/zakoni/2005/3902-04_Lat.zip ) ) ) [39] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F2. Public employment services [theme_slug] => f2-public-employment-services [theme_id] => 39 [contents] => The Law on Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment of Persons with Disabilities (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia No 36/2009) provides the jurisdiction of the National Employment Agency in determining of the work capabilities of persons with disabilities. National Employment Agency issues a decisionon assessed work skills and employment opportunities or maintaining employment, based on findings, opinions and assessment of experts body consisting of medical experts from the Republic Fund for Pension and Disability Insurance, a specialist in occupational medicine, psychologists and experts of National Employment Agency.

The National Employment Agency has established a Centre for Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment of Persons with Disabilities as the main provider of vocational rehabilitation services and programmes of active labour market measures aimed at persons with disabilities. It provides statistics regarding the employment rate of disabled people, as well as other employment related statistics, in their annual and other reports and publications (in cooperation with Statistical Office of Republic of Serbia). [update_date] => 2013-04-23 19:28:43 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Programs for persons with disabilities on National Employment Agency [url] => http://www.nsz.gov.rs/live/trazite-posao/dok-trazite-posao/programi/programi_za_osobe_sa_invaliditetom.cid285 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The National Employment Agency home page [url] => http://www.nsz.gov.rs ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Rules on monitoring methods the execution of the obligations of employment of persons with disabilities and the way of proving their obligation [url] => http://www.nsz.gov.rs/live/digitalAssets/0/328_pravilnik_o_nacinu_pracenja.pdf ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Rules on more detailed manner, expenses and criteria for assessment of work ability and opportunities for employment or preservation of employment of persons with disabilities [url] => http://www.nsz.gov.rs/live/digitalAssets/0/329_pravilnik_o_blizem_nacinu.pdf ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Rules on monitoring methods the execution of the obligations of employment of persons with disabilities and the way of proving their obligation [url] => http://www.nsz.gov.rs/live/digitalAssets/0/328_pravilnik_o_nacinu_pracenja.pdf ) [5] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Rules on detailed requirements, criteria and standards of conduct and measures of vocational rehabilitation activities [url] => http://www.nsz.gov.rs/live/digitalAssets/0/330_pravilnik_o_blizim_uslovima.pdf ) ) ) [40] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F3. Workplace adaptations [theme_slug] => f3-workplace-adaptations [theme_id] => 40 [contents] => The Law on Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment of Persons with Disabilities contains provision related to reimbursement of appropriate expenses of adaptations or adjustments of the workplace, which may be granted to the employer who hires a person with disability. Adjusting relates to the technical and technological equipping of the workplace, premises and equipment, in accordance with the capabilities and needs of persons with disabilities. The amount of reimbursement is up to 300,000 RSD (2500-3000 EUR) and must not be greater than the costs of actual adjustments. [update_date] => 2013-04-23 19:29:26 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Law on Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment of Persons with Disabilities (2009, English) [url] => http://www.ravnopravnost.gov.rs/files/Law%20on%20professional%20rehabilitation%20and%20employment.doc ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Programs for persons with disabilities on National Employment Agency [url] => http://www.nsz.gov.rs/live/trazite-posao/dok-trazite-posao/programi/programi_za_osobe_sa_invaliditetom.cid285 ) ) ) [41] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F4. Financial incentives [theme_slug] => f4-financial-incentives [theme_id] => 41 [contents] => The National Employment Action Plan for 2012 (based on the National Strategy for Employment 2011-2020) states that incentives for: recruitment of persons with disabilities, vocational rehabilitation services, refunds for salaries of persons with disabilities employed in vocational rehabilitation enterprises, improvement of conditions of work, upgrading of production lines, introduction of standards, improvement of the quality of products and services, adjustments in the workplace and other services, are paid for by the Fund for Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment of Persons with Disabilities. This comprises State funds, penalties and payments made towards the co-financing of salaries of persons with disabilities employed in vocational rehabilitation enterprises, social enterprises or organisations.

The Law on Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment of Persons with Disabilities introduces incentives to improve the conditions of work (includes accessibility), incentives and support in cases of self-employment, strengthening the capacities of enterprises for vocational rehabilitation and employment of persons with disabilities, targeting active labour market programmes for hard-to-employ individuals and groups at risk of labour market exclusion; subsidising employers’ share of social security contributions (payroll taxes, pension and disability insurance contributions), in accordance with the Decree on Employment Incentives and granting incentives to employers according to the provision of the Law on Mandatory Social Insurance Contributions. Apart from incentives to private employers, public sector employers are also eligible for subsidies for recruiting persons with disabilities to fill newly opened positions.

The Law on Amendments to the Law on Compulsory Social Insurance (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia 62/06), determines the potential exemption of the obligation to pay contributions for social insurance, which are paid by the employer in period of 3 years, when hiring people with disabilities.

The National Employment Agency issues following types of tenders: grant-subsidies to employers to open new work posts; Grant-subsidies for self-employment to unemployed persons with disabilities; tenders to organize and carry out public works where persons with disabilities shall be employed (limited to period of six months so far, with several months gap between two tenders); reimbursement of salary of persons engaged to render professional support to persons with disabilities at work; participation in financing of training programmes for persons with disabilities for the requirements of employers; submission of claims for refund of adequate costs of adjustment of work post for employment of persons with disabilities; implementation of professional practice and submission of claims for grant of subsidies of salaries for employment of persons with disabilities without work experience. [update_date] => 2013-04-23 19:29:47 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The National Employment Action Plan for 2012 [url] => http://www.lokalnirazvoj.rs/assets/files/National%20Employment%20Action%20Plan_2012_eng.pdf ) ) ) [43] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G1. Official research [theme_slug] => g1-official-research [theme_id] => 43 [contents] => The Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia is special professional organization in the system of state administration of the Republic of Serbia that performs the expert tasks related to organization and conducting of the statistical surveys, methodology creation, collecting, processing, statistical analysis and publishing of the statistical data; data processing etc.

Statistical survey on pre-school institutions (PSV) collects data on children with developmental disability – by age, sex and duration of day-care and canteen and is published in annual report for current year. Other statistical surveys on educational institutions (primary, secondary) collect data from regular schools and school for pupils with developmental disabilities, without disability related indicators, with reports published annually, on the beginning or the end of school year. Survey on student enrolment (for higher education institutions) collects data on difficulties in carrying out every day student’s activities.

More disability related data and statistics is collected and produced within the field of social protection (responsible producer of official statistics - Republic Institute for Social Protection), through following surveys: Survey on minor and adult beneficiaries and services, measures and interventions of social protection; Survey on children and youth with developmental disabilities; Survey on adults with developmental disabilities; Survey on adults with mental disabilities; Survey on adults with disabilities and sense impairments. However, these statistics are limited to beneficiaries of the social protection institutions.

With the cooperation with the Republic Fund for Pension and Disability Insurance, statistics in the field of pension and disability insurance are collected through: Survey on beneficiaries of rights to pension and disability insurance; Survey on pension beneficiaries as of 31 December of the year for which report is drawn; Survey on pension beneficiaries who have realized the rights for the first time, and published reports annually, for previous year. [update_date] => 2013-04-23 19:31:12 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Regulation on Defining the Plan of Official Statistics for 2012 (English) [url] => http://webrzs.stat.gov.rs/WebSite/userFiles/file/O%20nama/Dokumenti/UREDBA%20-%20%20PLAN%202012_-PREVOD%20na%20engleski.doc ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Law on Official Statistics (2009, English) - [url] => http://webrzs.stat.gov.rs/WebSite/userFiles/file/O%20nama/Dokumenti/Zakon_o_statisticiE.pdf ) ) ) [44] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G2. Census data [theme_slug] => g2-census-data [theme_id] => 44 [contents] => Disability, while not being explicitly mentioned, was introduced in Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011 questionnaire that took place in October 2011, and is represented with two questions within part titled “Functioning and Social Integration”. First question records “the difficulties in performing everyday activities due to problems with” following categories: vision, hearing, walking and climbing up stairs, memory/concentration, independence in dressing, eating, personal hygiene, communication. A second question refers to use of assistive aids, but offered answers are limited to orthopaedic and similar aids for persons with physical disability. Results of the census and data should be available in early-mid 2013. [update_date] => 2013-04-23 19:30:07 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011 - Individual questionnaire (Form P-1) (English) [url] => http://media.popis2011.stat.rs/2011/obrasci/Popisnica-enleski.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Law on Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in 2011 (2009, Serbian) - [url] => http://www.parlament.rs/upload/archive/files/lat/doc/zakoni/2009/2380-09Lat.zip ) ) ) [45] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G3. Labour Force Survey [theme_slug] => g3-labour-force-survey [theme_id] => 45 [contents] => The Labour Force Survey is conducted by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. It was introduced in the Republic of Serbia in 1994, but become internationally comparable in 2004. In April 2008 the Survey was fully harmonized with recommendations of International Labour Organization and EuroStat requirements. Disability is introduced as an indicator in both “Active” (employed persons with disabilities) and “Inactive” (“desire to work but cannot work due to: illness or disability” and “do not want to work due to: illness or disability and care of children or adult disabled persons”) categories of population. Persons living in institutional households such as homes for adults with disabilities, homes for children and young people with disability and old/retired people homes are excluded from Labour Force Survey. [update_date] => 2013-04-24 16:09:11 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Labour Force Survey 2012 (Serbian) [url] => http://webrzs.stat.gov.rs/WebSite/repository/documents/00/00/96/02/SB_564_ARS_2012+sajt.pdf ) ) ) [46] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G4. Disability equality indicators [theme_slug] => g4-disability-equality-indicators [theme_id] => 46 [contents] => In 2009-2010, the Social Inclusion and Poverty Reduction Unit and the Republic Statistical Office produced the report “Monitoring Social Inclusion in Serbia - Overview and Current Status of Social Inclusion in Serbia Based on Monitoring European and National Indicators”. The report proposes certain criteria for data disaggregation on national level, status of persons with disabilities and physical isolation (hospital treatment) being among them. The areas where necessity of introduction of disability indicators is proposed and emphasized are employment, health and deprivation of basic needs (material deprivation – housing and fulfilment of basic needs). [update_date] => 2013-04-23 19:30:36 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Report - Monitoring Social Inclusion in Serbia (2010, English) [url] => http://www.inkluzija.gov.rs/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/Monitoring-Social-Inclusion-in-Serbia-July2010ENG.pdf ) ) ) [48] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H1. Awareness raising programs [theme_slug] => h1-awareness-raising-programs [theme_id] => 48 [contents] => We do not yet have information for this item [update_date] => 2012-04-05 10:08:56 [links] => Array ( ) ) [49] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H2. Training for teachers [theme_slug] => h2-training-for-teachers [theme_id] => 49 [contents] => There are several faculties for initial teachers training in Serbia. The curriculum of all of them contains compulsory subject that is related to work with pupils with disabilities and it is usually on third academic year (out of four years of bachelor study). Still, it is based on the medical approach to disability and limitations rather than possibilities for education in inclusive environment. Discourse and terminology (used in the names of subjects, at least) is discriminatory and 'special needs' paradigm is widely present. Aims of the subject that are listed are mostly based on introducing specifics of most common disabilities, and rarely on elaborating measures of inclusive education that are being part of the recent education policies in Serbia. In addition, most of these faculties offer elective course “Special pedagogy”. Curriculum of faculties that educate future subject teachers (e.g. science etc.) do not contain subjects/courses that are related to inclusive education.

Besides initial training that all school teachers received on their university studies, the Law on Fundamentals of Education System obliges schools to provide in-service training and continuous professional development of their staff in different fields, inclusive education being one of them. In addition, the Rulebook on additional educational support to a child and pupil provides a list of indirect support measures that includes additional in-service training for school staff. There are 78 accredited programs (for school year 2012/13) for additional teachers’ training that are listed in the Catalog of the Institute for Improvement and Evaluation of Education, under the category “education of children with special needs”. [update_date] => 2013-04-24 16:25:17 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Catalogue of the Institute for Improvement and Evaluation of Education for school year 2012/13 - the category “education of children with special needs” [url] => http://katalog.zuov.rs/Default.aspx?oblast=23#kompetencije ) ) ) [50] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H3. Training for lawyers [theme_slug] => h3-training-for-lawyers [theme_id] => 50 [contents] => There are several state and private faculties of law in Serbia. Legal issues related to persons with disabilities are mainly introduced through subjects such as Human rights, Minority rights, International and European law and similar. None of the faculties has a course that specifically deals with the rights of persons with disabilities. The Faculty of Law of the University of Belgrade provides an elective course “Legal clinic” with a section dealing with discrimination, where future lawyers are introduced to all legal instruments regarding disability and can learn and practice through actual cases of discrimination.

In addition, law faculties, human rights and other non-governmental organizations provide various non-formal education programs and activities (summer schools etc.) on topics of human rights and discrimination of persons with disabilities. [update_date] => 2013-04-24 16:25:51 [links] => Array ( ) ) [51] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H4. Training for doctors [theme_slug] => h4-training-for-doctors [theme_id] => 51 [contents] => We do not yet have information for this item [update_date] => 2012-04-05 10:08:56 [links] => Array ( ) ) [52] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H5. Training for engineers [theme_slug] => h5-training-for-engineers [theme_id] => 52 [contents] => Accessibility and a universal design have been introduced to the curriculum of the Faculty of Technical Sciences at the University in Novi Sad through elective subject “Principles of Universal Design” on the third year of basic academic studies of Architecture and Urbanism. These topics are part of the elective curriculum of the Faculty of Architecture of the University of Belgrade as well. Still, most of the training for engineers is provided by the non-governmental organizations (disabled people organizations, human rights etc.). [update_date] => 2013-04-24 16:26:21 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => “Principles of Universal Design” course, the Faculty of Technical Sciences at the University in Novi Sad [url] => http://www.ftn.uns.ac.rs/_data/planovi/2009/osnovne/arh.pdf ) ) ) [53] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H6. International development aid [theme_slug] => h6-international-development-aid [theme_id] => 53 [contents] => We do not yet have information for this item [update_date] => 2012-04-05 10:08:56 [links] => Array ( ) ) ) ) ) )