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Turkey

A. UN Convention status

A1. Ratification or conclusion of the UN Convention

The Government of the Republic of Turkey signed the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities on the 30 March 2007 and ratified the Convention on the 28 September 2009.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2015-05-07

A2. Ratification or accession to the Optional Protocol

The Government of the Republic of Turkey signed the Optional Protocol on the 28 September 2009 and ratified the Optional Protocol on the 26 January 2013.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2016-04-28

A3. Declarations, Reservations and Objections

The Government of the Republic of Turkey did not enter any declarations, reservations and objections.

Update date: Tue, 2013-11-12

A4. Comprehensive review

A comprehensive review of legislation has not been published yet.

Update date: Tue, 2013-11-12

A5. Focal point

The Directorate General of Services for People with Disabilities and the Elderly, which is part of the Ministry for Family and Social Policies, has been the focal point in Turkish state for implementation of the Convention. The Directorate General of Services for People with Disabilities and the Elderlyis the sole responsible public authority concerning the implementation of the rights of people with disabilities.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2013-10-18

A6. Coordination mechanism

The Government of the Republic of Turkey issued a circular on 19 July 2013 that established the Committee of Monitoring and Evaluation of Rights of People with Disabilities. The Committee of Monitoring and Evaluation of Rights of People with Disabilities will act as an advisory board for the Ministry of Family and Social Policies. The Committee will include representatives from the Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of Labour and Social Security, the Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Youth and Sports, the Ministry of Domestic Affairs, the Ministry of Development, the Ministry of National Education, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology, the Ministry of Transportation, Maritime Affairs and Communication, the Directorate of Religious Affairs, the Supreme Board of Radio and Television, the Information and Communication Technologies Authority, the Council of Higher Education, the head of Human Rights Institution of Turkey and the representatives of other institutions working for people with disabilities and NGOs that will be determined by the Minister of Family and Social Policies. The Committee had its kickoff meeting on 13 May 2014. The Committee did not meet again since then.

Update date: Thu, 2016-06-09

A7. Independent mechanism

The Human Rights Institution of Turkey has been established on the 30 June 2012. The Human Rights Institution of Turkey is legally associated with the Prime Ministry. The Human Rights Committee is the executive body of the Human Rights Institution of Turkey. The Committee has eleven members. The President of the Republic of Turkey elects two members. The Council of Ministers elects seven members. The Council of Higher Education elects one member who worked on human rights issues and a member of either law or political sciences faculties. Presidents of bars elect one member who worked as a lawyer for at least ten years and worked on human rights issues. Given its structure, the independency of the Human Rights Institution of Turkey from the executive is highly contested. The government is recently planning to reform the institution and a new draft law was released in 2014. According to the government official's account, the new institution will be named as the Human Rights and Equality Institution of Turkey and will act as a regulatory board that will work against human rights violations. Nevertheless, prominent international and domestic human rights NGOs declared that the emerging institution will neither be autonomous from the executive nor it will have the institutional capacity to function effectively.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2016-04-28

A8. Official reporting

The initial report of the Republic of Turkey was due in October 2011. The Ministry of Family and Social Policy's General Directorate of Services for Persons with Disabilities and the Elderly submitted its initial report on the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities based on the Article 35 of the Convention to the UN Convention Committee in 2016.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2016-04-28

A9. Shadow reporting

No shadow report has been submitted to the UN Convention Committee yet. However, a platform of NGOs including such disability rights NGOs as Association of Persons with Visual Impairments, Association of Persons with Disabilities of Turkey, Federation of the Blind of Turkey, Human Rights in Mental Health Initiative, Narlıdere Association for the Protection and Support of Persons with Mental Disabilities, have prepared a shadow report and submitted it to the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in May 2010.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2016-04-28

B. General legal framework

B1. Anti-discrimination legislation

Law on Persons with Disabilities (Law no. 5378) has been the first comprehensive law on disability rights that covered the equal rights of people with disabilities in policy domains including education, vocational training, employment etc. while openly prohibiting discrimination on the grounds of disability.
Constitutional amendment on 12 September 2010 added a paragraph to the Article 10 (on the Equality before the law) of the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey proclaiming that “measures to be taken for children, the elderly, disabled people, widows and orphans of martyrs as well as for the invalid and veterans shall not be considered as violation of the principle of equality. This article provided a legal basis for positive discrimination measures targeting disability equality.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2013-11-12

B2. Recognition of legal capacity

Article 13 of the Civil Code of the Republic of Turkey (Law no. 4712) proclaims that those with mental illnesses and/or mental impairments do not have legal capacity. Articles between and including 396 and 294 of the Civil Code of the Republic of Turkey describe the rules and regulations concerning the guardianship of people with mental illnesses and/or mental infirmities. Article 8 of the Law on the Basic Provisions of Elections proclaims that those under guardianship cannot be electors. This article provides the basis for the exclusion of people with mental health problems and/or mental disabilities from the elections. Human Rights in Mental Health Initiative published a new report on legal capacity in Turkey in 2014.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2016-04-28

B3. Accessibility of voting and elections

According to Article 90 of the Law on the Basic Provisions of Elections, disabled people should not wait in the election queue and should get priority. According to Article 93 of the same law, 'those having visual disabilities, paralytics and those with visible disabilities can vote with the assistance of one of their relatives or if they do not have a relative ready to assist they can use the assistance of any other voter.' Article 74 of the same law provides the legal basis for accessibility of voting and elections for disabled people. This article openly declares that all necessary measures should be taken in order to ensure the disabled people’s voting. However, as the report of the Independent Election Monitoring Platform indicates, the secret ballot principle had been violated for some disabled people in latest 2011 general elections. Before general elections in 2015, Turkey's Supreme Committee of Elections invited all citizens with physical and visual impairments to register themselves as people with disabilities in the Supreme Committee's records. The Supreme Committee declared that it would use these records to ensure that citizens with disabilities would be assigned to accessible polling booths. The Supreme Committee of Elections also declared that relatives of people with disabilities - rather than returning officers - are authorised to help people with disabilities casting their votes.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2016-06-09

B4. Official recognition of sign language

Article 15 of the Law on Persons with Disabilities (Law no. 5378) authorised Turkish Language Institution to develop the Turkish sign language and offer training on the Turkish sign language. However, no Act to formally recognise Turkish sign language has been introduced in the Parliament.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2014-01-14

B5. National disability strategy and action plan

We do not yet have information for this item

Update date: Tue, 2013-08-13

C. Accessibility

C1. Transport accessibility

Provisional article 3 of the Law on Persons with Disabilities (Law no. 5378) delegated the responsibility of ensuring the accessibility of all public transport facilities to metropolitan municipalities and all municipalities under their purview, within seven years after the enactment of the law in 2005. With the enactment of Law no. 6353, the time limit has been increased to eight years in 2012 by law, and the executive has been authorised to extend the deadline for two additional years. The Ministry of Family and Social Policies promulgated the Directive on Monitoring and Supervision of Accessibility in 20 July 2013. The Directive applies to the built environment and transport facilities. The Directive sets out national standards for accessibility. The Directive establishes provincial commissions that will carry out monitoring and supervision of the accessibility, prepare reports to the Ministry in case of non-compliance and contribute to the preparation and implementation of annual national accessibility plans. Provincial commissions will be composed of the provincial head of the Ministry of Family and Social Policies, representatives of related ministries and representatives of different confederations of organisations of people with disabilities. A relatively recent amendment to the Law on Persons with Disabilities on 18 November 2014 declared that no inner-city public transport vehicle unless it is accessible will be granted license and work permit. According to the Disability Rights Monitoring Report in 2013, only one-third of all buses operating in 61 cities of Turkey is accessible for people with orthopedic disabilities. In addition, only 7% of all buses are accessible for sight-disabled people. Almost 70% of all buses were purchased after the ratification of Law on Persons with Disabilities in 2005 that established accessibility requirements for public transport.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2016-06-09

C2. Built environment accessibility

Provisional article 2 of the Law on Persons with Disabilities (Law no. 5378) delegated the responsibility of ensuring the accessibility of all built environment including all public facilities, roads, pavements, pedestrian crossings, parks etc. in seven years after the enactment of the law in 2005. With the enactment of Law no. 6353, the time limit has been increased to eight years in 2012 by law and the executive has been authorised to extend the deadline for two additional years.

The Ministry of Family and Social Policies promulgated the Directive on Monitoring and Supervision of Accessibility in 20 July 2013. The Directive applies to built environment and transport facilities. The Directive sets out national standards for accessibility. The Directive establishes provincial commissions that will carry out monitoring and supervision of the accessibility, prepare reports to the Ministry in case of non-compliance and contribute to the preparation and implementation of annual national accessibility plans. Provincial commissions will be composed of the provincial head of the Ministry of Family and Social Policies, representatives of related ministries and representatives of different confederations of organisations of people with disabilities.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2014-01-14

C3. ICT and Web accessibility

The Republic of Turkey does not have a special law or regulation concerning the ICT and Web accessibility yet. Turkey has signed the World Intellectual Property Organisation-administered treaty titled Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works for Persons Who Are Blind, Visually Impaired or Otherwise Print Disabled on 1 November 2013.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2016-04-28

D. Independent living

D1. Choice of living arrangements

The Republic of Turkey does not have an enforceable framework mental health law nor a law prohibiting arbitrary detention in psychiatric facilities. One of the key legal documents in this area is the Patients’ Rights Directive. The Directive provides medical doctors with guidance on basic principles including informed consent. However, the Directive permits the decision of admission to family members. Therefore, the Directive does not ensure individual consent even in cases where this might be possible. In addition, the Directive does not provide patients to make an appeal against an involuntary commitment or to appeal to a court. According to the Article 6 of the Law on Persons with Disabilities (Law no. 5378), the Republic of Turkey has shifted its approach to care for people with intellectual disabilities from an institution-based approach to an approach centred upon 'care at home'. In practice, the Republic of Turkey introduced an income means-tested 'at-home care allowance' for the families of people with intellectual disabilities in return of for their care services for their family member. However, in this model, the state does not still provide care support for people with intellectual disabilities and does not recognise the right to live independently from their families. As evidenced by the Mental Disability Rights International’s report, in 2005 community-based care services were not generally available for people with mental disabilities and their families. Independent Living Network, which included Human Rights in Mental Health Initiative based in Istanbul, declared that the key challenges to independent living in Turkey included individualised and medicalised understanding of disability, lack of understanding of the CRPD principles among disabled people, NGOs and policy-makers, legal provisions violating the rights of disabled people and creating obstacles to their full inclusion (i.e. guardianship), prevalence of traditional institutional care, limited range of and access to community-based services for disabled people, lack of accessible mainstream services and the emergence of new services for disabled people that are being promoted as community-based services but in fact are based on a medical model of disability and fail to provide disabled people with choice and control.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2016-04-28

D2. De-institutionalisation

Given that institutional care and treatment capacity of Turkey remain quite limited comparatively, 'de-institutionalisation' represents a change in the state’s approach to health services and social services for people with mental illnesses and people with intellectual disabilities rather than the replacement of exiting institutional capacity with community-based services.

The Ministry of Health issued the National Mental Health Action Plan (2011-2023) in 2011. Mental health services in Turkey traditionally relied upon an institution-based approach. However, according to the Action Plan, the Ministry of Health is dedicated to develop capacity in community-based mental health services, which might contribute to increasing choice for people with mental illnesses and/or mental disabilities to live in the community.

Article 6 of the Law on Persons with Disabilities (Law no. 5378), the Republic of Turkey adopted a family-centred approach to the care of people with intellectual disabilities. However, in practice, this approach has been largely the affirmation of the already-existing living arrangements of people with intellectual disabilities. Given the lack of institutional capacity for care, people with intellectual disabilities were effectively living in their family homes. Major change that this shift in the approach of the state towards treatment and social services for people with intellectual disabilities rendered has been the introduction of an income means-tested “at-home care allowance”.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2014-01-14

D3. Quality of social services

The Directorate General of Services for People with Disabilities and the Elderly is responsible for monitoring all care services in the country. Quality Standards for Care Services have been recently adopted on May 2013. The Director of the Directorate General of Services for People with Disabilities and the Elderly declared that they have formed a team of a hundred inspectors that will monitor all care facilities in the country and will submit their reports to the Directorate General.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2014-01-14

D4. Provision of assistive devices at home

The Republic of Turkey recognises disabled people’s need for assistive devices at home as part of their medical needs. Therefore, public authorities do not make assessments of needs at home or provide alterations to private housing. People with disabilities can only get access to subsidised or free assistive devices if they receive a medical report indicating that they need a specific assistive device due to their medical conditions. The Social Security Institution issues Health Implementation Directives annually that specify which assistive devices will be subsidised by the state under which medical conditions.

Update date: Tue, 2014-01-14

D5. Availability of personal assistance schemes

Personalisation nad user choice and control of social services for people with disabilities has not been introduced in Turkey. For instance, income means-tested 'at-home care allowance' is paid to the carer directly, who is predominantly the female member of the person with disability’s family.

Update date: Tue, 2014-01-14

D6. Income maintenance

The Republic of Turkey has a complex system of contributory and non-contributory benefit schemes run by the state. Turkey has a contributory pension system that is funded out of contributions of both employers and employees. Within this system, people with disabilities are entitled to pension benefit earlier than other citizens. The Republic of Turkey introduced income means-tested non-contributory income support scheme in 1976. According to the Law no. 2022, people with disabilities are entitled to a monthly paid income support scheme provided that they are not employed and they live under a poverty threshold. For people with disabilities that were found to have the capacity to work by medical authorities, the government introduced the conditionality to the non-contributory income support scheme to be registered with the Turkish Employment Institution and actively seek employment.

The Revenue Administration Department implements tax breaks for people with disabilities either working as an employee or self-employed. Level of tax breaks depends on the level of one’s impairment as determined by medical authorities. This tax break is approximately equal to 15 per cent of salaries for employees and 15 per cent of annual revenues for the self-employed.

In addition, income means-tested at-home care allowance in effect functions as an income support scheme for the families of people with disabilities. The level of at-home care allowance is higher than that of the non-contributory income support for people with disabilities and is equal to the level of net minimum wage.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2014-01-14

D7. Additional costs

The Republic of Turkey does not have any benefit scheme targeted to help people with disabilities to meet the additional costs of living with impairment, beyond basic income maintainance and tax allowances.

Update date: Tue, 2014-01-14

D8. Retirement income

Turkey has a contributory pension system that is funded out of contributions of both employers and employees. According to the Social Insurances and General Health Insurance Law no. 5510, people with disabilities are entitled to pension benefit earlier than other citizens. Minimum amount of time that a person with disability is expected to contribute to the system (thus to continue working) in order to become eligible for pension benefit is 15 years.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2014-01-14

E. Education

E1. Special schools

There are both public and private segregated special schools for children with disabilities in Turkey. The Directive on Special Education Services sets rules and regulations concerning special education schools in Turkey. The Ministry of National Education issued the Directive on Special Education Institutions on 18 May 2012 that is aimed to set rules and regulations for private sector-run special education schools and special education and rehabilitation centres.

According to Ministry of National Education’s statistics in 2011, total number of public and private special schools for children with disabilities is 714 (this does not include a number of private sector-run special education and rehabilitation centres). 111 of them are private primary special education schools. There are 1605 private sector-run special education and rehabilitation centres operating in Turkey. Special education and rehabilitation centres offer special education and rehabilitation services for children with disabilities and counselling services for their families.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2014-01-14

E2. Mainstream schools

With the promulgation of the Executive Order on Special Education in 1997, the integration of children with disabilities into mainstream schools has become the priority in the education policies. Article 15 of the Law on Persons with Disabilities (Law no. 5378) that was ratified in 2005 also strengthened this shift in education policies for children with disabilities. According to the Ministry of National Education’s statistics in 2011, 53,584 female and 84,309 male students with disabilities are currently enrolled in mainstream primary schools and 4,116 female and 6,774 male students are enrolled in mainstream secondary schools in Turkey. The number of students with disabilities has been increasing in both mainstream primary and secondary schools since 2002.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2014-04-17

E3. Sign language and Braille in school

There is no absolute right to the provision of communication in Braille or Turkish Sign Language in the mainstream education system. However, special education schools provide training on sign language and Braille. According to the Ministry of National Education’s statistics in 2011, there are 49 special primary schools run by the state that serves children with hearing disabilities. These schools teach sign language. There are 16 special primary schools run by the state that serves children with visual disabilities. These schools teach Braille and use training materials in Braille.

Update date: Thu, 2014-04-17

E4. Vocational training

Article 4 of the Law on Persons with Disabilities (Law no. 5378) prohibits discrimination on the grounds of disabilities in all domains of social policies.

According to the Ministry of National Education’s statistics in 2011, there are both formal and non-formal education institutions that offer vocational training for people with disabilities.

There are 112 formal special education schools that can be categorised as vocational training institutions. There are two vocational high schools for students with orthopedic disabilities, 21 vocational high schools for students with hearing disabilities and 89 vocational secondary schools for students with intellectual disabilities.

There are 261 non-formal special education centres that provide vocational training for people with disabilities. 135 of them serve people with intellectual disabilities. 14 of them are vocational training centres for children with autism. 112 of them are private special education schools.

In addition to vocational training services of education institutions under the purview of the Ministry of National Education, Turkish Employment Institution offers vocational trainings for people with disabilities. According to the Annual Report of the Turkish Employment Institution in 2011, the Institution run 434 vocational training modules for people with disabilities and more than 4000 people have attended these modules.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2014-04-17

E5. Higher education

Article 4 of the Law on Persons with Disabilities (Law no. 5378) prohibits discrimination on the grounds of disabilities in all domains of social policies including higher education policies.

The Directive on Counselling and Coordination for People with Disabilities in Higher Education Institutions was released in 14 August 2010. With the promulgation of this Directive, Special Commissions were established in each university to coordinate disability equality policies within higher education.

Special Commissions for Students with Disabilities work quite differently in different universities. While some universities committed more time and energy to make their institutions and curricula accessible for students with disabilities as well as more willing to implement disability equality policies, others remained largely inactive so far. Engin Yılmaz from Boğaziçi University, on behalf of the Platform of the Students with Disabilities, made a presentation in the official meeting titled “The Structure and Working of Special Commissions for Students with Disabilities” about the demands and expectations of students with disabilities from Special Commissions.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2014-04-17

F. Employment

F1. Non-discrimination in employment

Article 4 of the Law on Persons with Disabilities (Law no. 5378) prohibits discrimination on the grounds of disabilities in all domains of social policies including employment policies. Article 14 of the Law on Persons with Disabilities (Law no. 5378) specifically addresses non-discrimination principle in the employment of people with disabilities.

The Republic of Turkey implements positive discrimination measures concerning the employment of people with disabilities. Article 30 of the Labour Law (Law no. 4857) proclaims that all employers hiring more than 50 employees has to hire at least 3 per cent of their employees from people with disabilities. Turkish Employment Institution is responsible for finding the right candidates for job positions and is authorised to fine companies that do not comply with this article.

According to Article 53 of the Civil Servants Law (Law no. 657), all public institutions are required to hire at least 3 per cent of all their employers from people with disabilities.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2014-04-17

F2. Public employment services

The Turkish Employment Institution is the public body that is responsible for increasing employment of people with disabilities, providing vocational training services for people with disabilities and coordinating the implementation of positive discrimination measures concerning the employment of people with disabilities in the private sector.

Number of people with disabilities that were placed in a job position by Turkish Employment Institution has been on the rise since 2008. However, according to the latest figures in 2012, more than 100,000 people with disabilities are waiting to be placed in a job and have not been successfully placed so far. Turkish Employment Institution’s job placement and employee-employer matching services have been criticised both by people with disabilities and employers. In addition to the Turkish Employment Institution’s job placement services, some non-governmental organisations are also active in finding the right employee with disabilities for the employer.

According to the figures of the Presidency of State Personnel in 2011, public sector employs 20,829 people with disabilities. However, more than half of the total number of people with disabilities that has to be employed in public institutions in order to comply with the minimum of 3 per cent threshold, around additional 30,000 people with disabilities have to employed in public institutions.

According to the Turkish Statistical Institution’s figures, 4,240 people with disabilities have participated in 434 vocational training modules offered by Turkish Employment Institution in 2011.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2014-04-17

F3. Workplace adaptations

The Republic of Turkey does not offer any guidance or financial support for workplace adaptations.

Update date: Thu, 2014-04-17

F4. Financial incentives

Article 30 of the Labour Law (Law no. 4857) proclaims that all employers hiring more than 50 employees has to hire at least 3 per cent of their employees from people with disabilities. In order to implement this policy, the Labour Law introduced financial incentives for employers. In line with the general framework set by the Labour Law, Social Security Institution issued a circular in 19 August 2008 that clarified the financial incentives. These financial incentives include full compensation of employers’ social security contributions by the Treasury for employees with disabilities hired so as to meet the minimum 3 per cent threshold. If companies hire more than this minimum threshold, the Treasury pays half of employers’ social security contributions for employees with disabilities. The Directorate General of Services for People with Disabilities and the Elderly declared that new financial incentives are forthcoming with the objective of promoting the establishment of supported employment opportunities for people with disabilities.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2014-04-17

G. Statistics and data collection

G1. Official research

The Directive on the Establishment of Database of People with Disabilities and the Provision of Special Identity Card for People with Disabilities was issued in 19 June 2008. According to this Directive, the Ministry of Family and Social Policies and the Ministry of Domestic Affairs are collectively responsible for the establishment of the Database of People with Disabilities. The Directorate General for People with Disabilities, which was closed down in 31 December 2011 and its responsibilities has been transferred to the new established Ministry of Family and Social Policies’ The Directorate General of Services for People with Disabilities and the Elderly, was responsible for the compilation of the Database of People with Disabilities. Currently, the Ministry of Health collects health data of people with disabilities. The Directorate General of Services for People with Disabilities and the Elderly publishes existing data on public services for people with disabilities by working with Turkish Statistical Institution and other related public bodies.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2014-04-17

G2. Census data

The only national survey on people with disabilities was conducted in 2002. In this national survey, data on prevalence of disabilities (including chronic illnesses), types of disabilities, age, sex, educational attainment, marital status, employment status, social security status and the expectations of people with disabilities from public institutions have been gathered. The survey was conducted with a sample that has the representative power of seven geographical regions of Turkey and urban as well as rural areas.

Turkish Statistical Institution started to compile census data from address-based population registration system. The Institution published its latest census data in 2012. However, people with disabilities are not identified in the census data.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2014-04-17

G3. Labour Force Survey

Turkish Statistical Institute has been regularly conducting Household Labour Force Survey since 1988. This Survey has been the main data source on the labour market situation of Turkey from the perspective of citizens. However, people with disabilities are not identified in the household labour force data. In this survey, respondents -who told that they are not actively searching for a job- are asked to provide reasons why they are not actively searching for a job. Disability, with sickness and old age, are counted as one of the reasons of being not in the labour force.

Turkish Employment Institution provides data on the employment status of people with disabilities in the private sector. The Presidency of State Personnel provides data on the employment status of people with disabilities in the public sector.

Update date: Thu, 2014-04-17

G4. Disability equality indicators

The Republic of Turkey does not regularly collect and publish data on disability equality indicators. However, the Turkish Statistical Institution conducted a national survey on problems and expectations of people with disabilities in 2010. In addition, The Directorate General of Services for People with Disabilities and the Elderly of the Ministry of Family and Social Policies started to compile and publish administrative and census data on people with disabilities.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2016-04-28

H. Awareness and external action

H1. Awareness raising programs

The Directorate General of Services for People with Disabilities and the Elderly, in collaboration with European Union and as part of Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA), opened up a call for applications to a grant scheme titled Improved Integration of People with Disabilities into Society. Non-governmental organisations working on disability rights issues are eligible for this grant provided that they develop projects to support the integration of people with disabilities into society. Call for application has recently been closed.

The Directorate General for People with Disabilities, which was closed down in 31 December 2011 and whose responsibilities has been transferred to the new established Ministry of Family and Social Policies’ The Directorate General of Services for People with Disabilities and the Elderly later on, run a nationwide project titled Turkey without Obstacles that started in 2007. As part of this project, The Directorate General for People with Disabilities officials visited all provinces of Turkey, gave lectures on the latest legislations on disability rights issues to a large audience including teachers, lawyers, medical doctors, engineers, social workers etc. and answered the questions of practitioners and representatives of disability organisations.

The Directorate General for People with Disabilities implemented another European Union funded project titled Fighting Discrimination on the Basis of Disability in Turkey in 2010. This project had two main activities. First of these is a research on the evaluation of discrimination on the basis of disability in Turkey. Secondly, a national symposium on fighting discrimination on the basis of disability was organised.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2014-04-17

H2. Training for teachers

Specified training in disability is not mandatory for all teachers and not part of the Education Faculties’ curricula.

Ministry of National Education’s Directorate General for Special Education and Rehabilitation Services has been organising a set of in-house training courses for teachers that will be employed in special education for children with intellectual disabilities between January and September 2013. Members of disabled people’s organisations are not included as trainers.

Ministry of National Education has been running a 30-month project titled Strengthening Special Education that started in 2011. As part of this project, special education teachers will be trained in promoting disability equality in their schools. Members of disabled people’s organisations are not included as trainers.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2014-04-17

H3. Training for lawyers

Specified training in disability is not mandatory for all lawyers and not part of the Law Faculties’ curricula.

Some bar associations including Istanbul, Denizli and Adana established their in-house disability rights commissions.

Update date: Thu, 2014-04-17

H4. Training for doctors

Specified training in disability equality is not mandatory for all medical doctors and not part of the Medical Faculties’ curricula.

Turkish Medical Association’s Declaration of Ethics specifically addresses discrimination on the basis of disability and prohibits it in medical practice.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2014-04-17

H5. Training for engineers

Specified training in disability is not mandatory for all engineers and architects and not part of the Engineering and Architecture Faculties’ curricula.

Union of Chambers of Architects and Engineers organised a workshop on accessibility in 2011 to raise awareness about accessibility and disability rights issues among architects and engineers.

Update date: Thu, 2014-04-17

H6. International development aid

Turkish Cooperation and Coordination Agency (TIKA) is the public body that is responsible for Turkey’s international development aid. TIKA has been investing in projects on education, restoration, water and sanitation projects, e-government projects, agricultural development, combating poverty, increasing the employment of women, infrastructure projects such as irrigation, health and transportation projects and constructing schools and hospitals as well as restoring architectural structures. Disability mainstreaming has not been identified in Turkey’s international development aid policies.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2014-04-17

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                    [slug] => candidate-acceding-countries
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 33
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                )

            [32] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 35
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                    [lft] => 64
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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                    [id] => 36
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => montenegro
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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                )

            [34] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 37
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                    [slug] => serbia
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            [35] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => turkey
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                    [alias] => 
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                    [path] => 
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                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => other-european-countries
                    [title] => Other European countries
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 4
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                    [id] => 39
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 38
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                    [id] => 40
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => norway
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 39
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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        )

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                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => a-un-convention-status
                    [title] => A. UN Convention status
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                    [rgt] => 3
                    [level] => 2
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 2
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 0000-00-00 00:00:00
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a2-ratification-or-accession-to-the-optional-protocol
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 3
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [3] => stdClass Object
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                    [rgt] => 7
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a3-declarations-reservations-and-objections
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 4
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
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                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [id] => 6
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a4-comprehensive-review
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 5
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                    [lft] => 10
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a5-focal-point
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 6
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 0000-00-00 00:00:00
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                    [id] => 8
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a6-coordination-mechanism
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 7
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [7] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 8
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [8] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 10
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                    [rgt] => 17
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a8-official-reporting
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 9
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [9] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 11
                    [parent_id] => 2
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                    [rgt] => 19
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a9-shadow-reporting
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 10
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                    [parent_id] => 1
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                    [rgt] => 32
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => b-general-legal-framework
                    [title] => B. General legal framework
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 11
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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            [11] => stdClass Object
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                    [parent_id] => 12
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                    [rgt] => 23
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b1-anti-discrimination-legislation
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 12
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [parent_id] => 12
                    [lft] => 24
                    [rgt] => 25
                    [level] => 2
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                    [title] => B2. Recognition of legal capacity
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 13
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [13] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 15
                    [parent_id] => 12
                    [lft] => 26
                    [rgt] => 27
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b3-accessibility-of-voting-and-elections
                    [title] => B3. Accessibility of voting and elections
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 14
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [14] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 16
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                    [lft] => 28
                    [rgt] => 29
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b4-official-recognition-of-sign-language
                    [title] => B4. Official recognition of sign language
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 15
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [15] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 17
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                    [rgt] => 31
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b5-national-disability-strategy-and-action-plan
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 16
                    [state] => 1
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            [16] => stdClass Object
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                    [lft] => 33
                    [rgt] => 40
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => c-accessibility
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 17
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [17] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 19
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                    [lft] => 34
                    [rgt] => 35
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => c1-transport-accessibility
                    [title] => C1. Transport accessibility
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 18
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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            [18] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 20
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                    [rgt] => 37
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => c2-built-environment-accessibility
                    [title] => C2. Built environment accessibility
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 19
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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                )

            [19] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 21
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                    [rgt] => 39
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => c3-ict-and-web-accessibility
                    [title] => C3. ICT and Web accessibility
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 20
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [20] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 22
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                    [lft] => 41
                    [rgt] => 58
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => d-independent-living
                    [title] => D. Independent living
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 21
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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            [21] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 23
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                    [rgt] => 43
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d1-choice-of-living-arrangements
                    [title] => D1. Choice of living arrangements
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 22
                    [state] => 1
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                )

            [22] => stdClass Object
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                    [lft] => 44
                    [rgt] => 45
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d2-de-institutionalisation
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 23
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [23] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d3-quality-of-social-services
                    [title] => D3. Quality of social services
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 24
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
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                    [rgt] => 49
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d4-provision-of-assistive-devices-at-home
                    [title] => D4. Provision of assistive devices at home
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 25
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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                    [id] => 27
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d5-availability-of-personal-assistance-schemes
                    [title] => D5. Availability of personal assistance schemes
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 26
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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                )

            [26] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 28
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                    [rgt] => 53
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d6-income-maintenance
                    [title] => D6. Income maintenance
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 27
                    [state] => 1
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            [27] => stdClass Object
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                    [rgt] => 55
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d7-additional-costs
                    [title] => D7. Additional costs
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 28
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [28] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 30
                    [parent_id] => 22
                    [lft] => 56
                    [rgt] => 57
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d8-retirement-income
                    [title] => D8. Retirement income
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 29
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [29] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 31
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 59
                    [rgt] => 70
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => e-education
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 30
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [30] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 32
                    [parent_id] => 31
                    [lft] => 60
                    [rgt] => 61
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => e1-special-schools
                    [title] => E1. Special schools
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 31
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [31] => stdClass Object
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                    [parent_id] => 31
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                    [rgt] => 63
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => e2-mainstream-schools
                    [title] => E2. Mainstream schools
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 32
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [32] => stdClass Object
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                    [rgt] => 65
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => e3-sign-language-and-braille-in-school
                    [title] => E3. Sign language and Braille in school
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 33
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [33] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 35
                    [parent_id] => 31
                    [lft] => 66
                    [rgt] => 67
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => e4-vocational-training
                    [title] => E4. Vocational training
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 34
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [34] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 36
                    [parent_id] => 31
                    [lft] => 68
                    [rgt] => 69
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => e5-higher-education
                    [title] => E5. Higher education
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 35
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [35] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 37
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 71
                    [rgt] => 80
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => f-employment
                    [title] => F. Employment
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 36
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 4
                )

            [36] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 38
                    [parent_id] => 37
                    [lft] => 72
                    [rgt] => 73
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => f1-non-discrimination-in-employment
                    [title] => F1. Non-discrimination in employment
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 37
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [37] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 39
                    [parent_id] => 37
                    [lft] => 74
                    [rgt] => 75
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => f2-public-employment-services
                    [title] => F2. Public employment services
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 38
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [38] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 40
                    [parent_id] => 37
                    [lft] => 76
                    [rgt] => 77
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => f3-workplace-adaptations
                    [title] => F3. Workplace adaptations
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 39
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [39] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 41
                    [parent_id] => 37
                    [lft] => 78
                    [rgt] => 79
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => f4-financial-incentives
                    [title] => F4. Financial incentives
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 40
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [40] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 42
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 81
                    [rgt] => 90
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => g-statistics-and-data-collection
                    [title] => G. Statistics and data collection
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 41
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 4
                )

            [41] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 43
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 82
                    [rgt] => 83
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g1-official-research
                    [title] => G1. Official research
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 42
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [42] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 44
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 84
                    [rgt] => 85
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g2-census-data
                    [title] => G2. Census data
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 43
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [43] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 45
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 86
                    [rgt] => 87
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g3-labour-force-survey
                    [title] => G3. Labour Force Survey
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 44
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [44] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 46
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 88
                    [rgt] => 89
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g4-disability-equality-indicators
                    [title] => G4. Disability equality indicators
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 45
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [45] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 47
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 91
                    [rgt] => 104
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => h-awareness-and-external-action
                    [title] => H. Awareness and external action
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 46
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 6
                )

            [46] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 48
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 92
                    [rgt] => 93
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h1-awareness-raising-programs
                    [title] => H1. Awareness raising programs
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 47
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [47] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 49
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 94
                    [rgt] => 95
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h2-training-for-teachers
                    [title] => H2. Training for teachers
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 48
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [48] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 50
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 96
                    [rgt] => 97
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h3-training-for-lawyers
                    [title] => H3. Training for lawyers
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 49
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [49] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 51
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 98
                    [rgt] => 99
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h4-training-for-doctors
                    [title] => H4. Training for doctors
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 50
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [50] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 52
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 100
                    [rgt] => 101
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h5-training-for-engineers
                    [title] => H5. Training for engineers
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 51
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [51] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 53
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 102
                    [rgt] => 103
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h6-international-development-aid
                    [title] => H6. International development aid
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 52
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

        )

    [results] => Array
        (
            [38] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [parent] => Candidate / Acceding countries
                    [location] => Turkey
                    [location_id] => 38
                    [location_slug] => turkey
                    [themes] => Array
                        (
                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A1. Ratification or conclusion of the UN Convention
                                    [theme_slug] => a1-ratification-or-conclusion-of-the-un-convention
                                    [theme_id] => 3
                                    [contents] => The Government of the Republic of Turkey signed the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities on the 30 March 2007 and ratified the Convention on the 28 September 2009.
                                    [update_date] => 2015-05-07 16:19:03
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law Confirming the Ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
                                                    [url] => http://www.eyh.gov.tr/tr/html/8176/2.1
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [4] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A2. Ratification or accession to the Optional Protocol
                                    [theme_slug] => a2-ratification-or-accession-to-the-optional-protocol
                                    [theme_id] => 4
                                    [contents] => The Government of the Republic of Turkey signed the Optional Protocol on the 28 September 2009 and ratified the Optional Protocol on the 26 January 2013.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-04-28 16:34:54
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
                                                    [url] => https://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=IND&mtdsg_no=IV-15&chapter=4&lang=en
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [5] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A3. Declarations, Reservations and Objections
                                    [theme_slug] => a3-declarations-reservations-and-objections
                                    [theme_id] => 5
                                    [contents] => The Government of the Republic of Turkey did not enter any declarations, reservations and objections.
                                    [update_date] => 2013-11-12 14:09:21
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                        )

                                )

                            [6] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A4. Comprehensive review
                                    [theme_slug] => a4-comprehensive-review
                                    [theme_id] => 6
                                    [contents] => A comprehensive review of legislation has not been published yet.
                                    [update_date] => 2013-11-12 14:15:22
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                        )

                                )

                            [7] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A5. Focal point
                                    [theme_slug] => a5-focal-point
                                    [theme_id] => 7
                                    [contents] => The Directorate General of Services for People with Disabilities and the Elderly, which is part of the Ministry for Family and Social Policies, has been the focal point in Turkish state for implementation of the Convention. The Directorate General of Services for People with Disabilities and the Elderlyis the sole responsible public authority concerning the implementation of the rights of people with disabilities.
                                    [update_date] => 2013-10-18 08:58:56
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Directorate General of Services for People with Disabilities and the Elderly
                                                    [url] => http://www.eyh.gov.tr/tr
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [8] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A6. Coordination mechanism
                                    [theme_slug] => a6-coordination-mechanism
                                    [theme_id] => 8
                                    [contents] => The Government of the Republic of Turkey issued a circular on 19 July 2013 that established the Committee of Monitoring and Evaluation of Rights of People with Disabilities. The Committee of Monitoring and Evaluation of Rights of People with Disabilities will act as an advisory board for the Ministry of Family and Social Policies. The Committee will include representatives from the Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of Labour and Social Security, the Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Youth and Sports, the Ministry of Domestic Affairs, the Ministry of Development, the Ministry of National Education, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology, the Ministry of Transportation, Maritime Affairs and Communication, the Directorate of Religious Affairs, the Supreme Board of Radio and Television, the Information and Communication Technologies Authority, the Council of Higher Education, the head of Human Rights Institution of Turkey and the representatives of other institutions working for people with disabilities and NGOs that will be determined by the Minister of Family and Social Policies. The Committee had its kickoff meeting on 13 May 2014. The Committee did not meet again since then.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-06-09 14:28:51
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                        )

                                )

                            [9] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A7. Independent mechanism
                                    [theme_slug] => a7-independent-mechanism
                                    [theme_id] => 9
                                    [contents] => The Human Rights Institution of Turkey has been established on the 30 June 2012. The Human Rights Institution of Turkey is legally associated with the Prime Ministry. The Human Rights Committee is the executive body of the Human Rights Institution of Turkey. The Committee has eleven members. The President of the Republic of Turkey elects two members. The Council of Ministers elects seven members. The Council of Higher Education elects one member who worked on human rights issues and a member of either law or political sciences faculties. Presidents of bars elect one member who worked as a lawyer for at least ten years and worked on human rights issues. Given its structure, the independency of the Human Rights Institution of Turkey from the executive is highly contested. The government is recently planning to reform the institution and a new draft law was released in 2014. According to the government official's account, the new institution will be named as the Human Rights and Equality Institution of Turkey and will act as a regulatory board that will work against human rights violations. Nevertheless, prominent international and domestic human rights NGOs declared that the emerging institution will neither be autonomous from the executive nor it will have the institutional capacity to function effectively.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-04-28 16:49:42
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The Human Rights Institution of Turkey
                                                    [url] => http://www.tihk.gov.tr/en/
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => 'Turkey to Establish Human Rights and Equality Institution'
                                                    [url] => http://www.byegm.gov.tr/english/agenda/turkey-to-establish-human-rights-and-equality-institution/89607
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Amnesty International on the Human Rights and Equality Institution of Turkey
                                                    [url] => http://www.amnesty.org.tr/icerik/8/1518/turkiye-insan-haklari-kurumu-kanunu
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [10] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A8. Official reporting
                                    [theme_slug] => a8-official-reporting
                                    [theme_id] => 10
                                    [contents] => The initial report of the Republic of Turkey was due in October 2011. The Ministry of Family and Social Policy's General Directorate of Services for Persons with Disabilities and the Elderly submitted its initial report on the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities based on the Article 35 of the Convention to the UN Convention Committee in 2016.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-04-28 16:54:01
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => State reports to the UN Committee
                                                    [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=179&DocTypeID=29
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Link to all UN reporting cycle documentation
                                                    [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=179
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] =>  The initial report of the Republic of Turkey
                                                    [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRPD%2fC%2fTUR%2f1&Lang=en
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [11] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A9. Shadow reporting
                                    [theme_slug] => a9-shadow-reporting
                                    [theme_id] => 11
                                    [contents] => No shadow report has been submitted to the UN Convention Committee yet. However, a platform of NGOs including such disability rights NGOs as Association of Persons with Visual Impairments, Association of Persons with Disabilities of Turkey, Federation of the Blind of Turkey, Human Rights in Mental Health Initiative, Narlıdere Association for the Protection and Support of Persons with Mental Disabilities, have prepared a shadow report and submitted it to the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in May 2010.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-04-28 16:57:27
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Civil society reports to the UN Committee
                                                    [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=179&DocTypeID=14
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => NGO platform report to the UN: 
                                                    [url] => http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cescr/docs/ngos/NGOsJointSubmission_TurkeyWG44.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [13] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => B. General legal framework
                                    [theme_title] => B1. Anti-discrimination legislation
                                    [theme_slug] => b1-anti-discrimination-legislation
                                    [theme_id] => 13
                                    [contents] => Law on Persons with Disabilities (Law no. 5378) has been the first comprehensive law on disability rights that covered the equal rights of people with disabilities in policy domains including education, vocational training, employment etc. while openly prohibiting discrimination on the grounds of disability.
Constitutional amendment on 12 September 2010 added a paragraph to the Article 10 (on the Equality before the law) of the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey proclaiming that “measures to be taken for children, the elderly, disabled people, widows and orphans of martyrs as well as for the invalid and veterans shall not be considered as violation of the principle of equality. This article provided a legal basis for positive discrimination measures targeting disability equality. [update_date] => 2013-11-12 14:24:31 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on Persons with Disabilities [url] => http://www.ozida.gov.tr/ENG/?menu=legislation&sayfa=act ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Constitutional amendment on 12 September 2010 [url] => http://global.tbmm.gov.tr/docs/constitution_en.pdf ) ) ) [14] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B2. Recognition of legal capacity [theme_slug] => b2-recognition-of-legal-capacity [theme_id] => 14 [contents] => Article 13 of the Civil Code of the Republic of Turkey (Law no. 4712) proclaims that those with mental illnesses and/or mental impairments do not have legal capacity. Articles between and including 396 and 294 of the Civil Code of the Republic of Turkey describe the rules and regulations concerning the guardianship of people with mental illnesses and/or mental infirmities. Article 8 of the Law on the Basic Provisions of Elections proclaims that those under guardianship cannot be electors. This article provides the basis for the exclusion of people with mental health problems and/or mental disabilities from the elections. Human Rights in Mental Health Initiative published a new report on legal capacity in Turkey in 2014. [update_date] => 2016-04-28 17:00:55 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Civil Code of the Republic of Turkey (Law no. 4712) [url] => http://www.tbmm.gov.tr/kanunlar/k4721.html ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on the Basic Provisions of Elections [url] => http://www.ysk.gov.tr/ysk/SecmenKaydi/298.htm ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Human Rights in Mental Health Initiative, Country Report on Legal Capacity (2014) [url] => http://www.eu-person.com/publication/turkish-eu-person-country-report/wppa_open/ ) ) ) [15] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B3. Accessibility of voting and elections [theme_slug] => b3-accessibility-of-voting-and-elections [theme_id] => 15 [contents] => According to Article 90 of the Law on the Basic Provisions of Elections, disabled people should not wait in the election queue and should get priority. According to Article 93 of the same law, 'those having visual disabilities, paralytics and those with visible disabilities can vote with the assistance of one of their relatives or if they do not have a relative ready to assist they can use the assistance of any other voter.' Article 74 of the same law provides the legal basis for accessibility of voting and elections for disabled people. This article openly declares that all necessary measures should be taken in order to ensure the disabled people’s voting. However, as the report of the Independent Election Monitoring Platform indicates, the secret ballot principle had been violated for some disabled people in latest 2011 general elections. Before general elections in 2015, Turkey's Supreme Committee of Elections invited all citizens with physical and visual impairments to register themselves as people with disabilities in the Supreme Committee's records. The Supreme Committee declared that it would use these records to ensure that citizens with disabilities would be assigned to accessible polling booths. The Supreme Committee of Elections also declared that relatives of people with disabilities - rather than returning officers - are authorised to help people with disabilities casting their votes. [update_date] => 2016-06-09 14:32:33 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on the Basic Provisions of Elections [url] => http://www.ysk.gov.tr/ysk/SecmenKaydi/298.htm ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Report of the Independent Election Monitoring Platform: [url] => http://www.tr.boell.org/downloads/bagimsiz_secim_gozlem_raporu.pdf ) ) ) [16] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B4. Official recognition of sign language [theme_slug] => b4-official-recognition-of-sign-language [theme_id] => 16 [contents] => Article 15 of the Law on Persons with Disabilities (Law no. 5378) authorised Turkish Language Institution to develop the Turkish sign language and offer training on the Turkish sign language. However, no Act to formally recognise Turkish sign language has been introduced in the Parliament. [update_date] => 2014-01-14 13:36:12 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on Persons with Disabilities (Law no. 5378) [url] => http://www.ozida.gov.tr/ENG/?menu=legislation&sayfa=act ) ) ) [17] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B5. National disability strategy and action plan [theme_slug] => b5-national-disability-strategy-and-action-plan [theme_id] => 17 [contents] => We do not yet have information for this item [update_date] => 2013-08-13 10:42:23 [links] => Array ( ) ) [19] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => C. Accessibility [theme_title] => C1. Transport accessibility [theme_slug] => c1-transport-accessibility [theme_id] => 19 [contents] => Provisional article 3 of the Law on Persons with Disabilities (Law no. 5378) delegated the responsibility of ensuring the accessibility of all public transport facilities to metropolitan municipalities and all municipalities under their purview, within seven years after the enactment of the law in 2005. With the enactment of Law no. 6353, the time limit has been increased to eight years in 2012 by law, and the executive has been authorised to extend the deadline for two additional years. The Ministry of Family and Social Policies promulgated the Directive on Monitoring and Supervision of Accessibility in 20 July 2013. The Directive applies to the built environment and transport facilities. The Directive sets out national standards for accessibility. The Directive establishes provincial commissions that will carry out monitoring and supervision of the accessibility, prepare reports to the Ministry in case of non-compliance and contribute to the preparation and implementation of annual national accessibility plans. Provincial commissions will be composed of the provincial head of the Ministry of Family and Social Policies, representatives of related ministries and representatives of different confederations of organisations of people with disabilities. A relatively recent amendment to the Law on Persons with Disabilities on 18 November 2014 declared that no inner-city public transport vehicle unless it is accessible will be granted license and work permit. According to the Disability Rights Monitoring Report in 2013, only one-third of all buses operating in 61 cities of Turkey is accessible for people with orthopedic disabilities. In addition, only 7% of all buses are accessible for sight-disabled people. Almost 70% of all buses were purchased after the ratification of Law on Persons with Disabilities in 2005 that established accessibility requirements for public transport. [update_date] => 2016-06-09 14:40:45 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on Persons with Disabilities (Law no. 5378) [url] => http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex4.detail?p_lang=en&p_isn=77387&p_country=TUR&p_count=781&p_classification=08&p_classcount=39 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law no. 6353 [url] => http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2012/07/20120712-11.htm ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Turkish Disability Act (of July 2005 no. 5378) [url] => http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Disability/FirstDebate/Turkey.pdf ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Directive on Monitoring and Supervision of Accessibility [url] => http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2013/07/20130720-9.htm ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Disability Rights Monitoring Report [url] => http://www.engellihaklariizleme.org/tr/files/belgeler/kitap_2013.pdf ) ) ) [20] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => C. Accessibility [theme_title] => C2. Built environment accessibility [theme_slug] => c2-built-environment-accessibility [theme_id] => 20 [contents] => Provisional article 2 of the Law on Persons with Disabilities (Law no. 5378) delegated the responsibility of ensuring the accessibility of all built environment including all public facilities, roads, pavements, pedestrian crossings, parks etc. in seven years after the enactment of the law in 2005. With the enactment of Law no. 6353, the time limit has been increased to eight years in 2012 by law and the executive has been authorised to extend the deadline for two additional years.

The Ministry of Family and Social Policies promulgated the Directive on Monitoring and Supervision of Accessibility in 20 July 2013. The Directive applies to built environment and transport facilities. The Directive sets out national standards for accessibility. The Directive establishes provincial commissions that will carry out monitoring and supervision of the accessibility, prepare reports to the Ministry in case of non-compliance and contribute to the preparation and implementation of annual national accessibility plans. Provincial commissions will be composed of the provincial head of the Ministry of Family and Social Policies, representatives of related ministries and representatives of different confederations of organisations of people with disabilities. [update_date] => 2014-01-14 13:43:09 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on Persons with Disabilities (Law no. 5378) [url] => http://www.ozida.gov.tr/ENG/?menu=legislation&sayfa=act ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law no. 6353 [url] => http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2012/07/20120712-11.htm ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Directive on Monitoring and Supervision of Accessibility [url] => http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2013/07/20130720-9.htm ) ) ) [21] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => C. Accessibility [theme_title] => C3. ICT and Web accessibility [theme_slug] => c3-ict-and-web-accessibility [theme_id] => 21 [contents] => The Republic of Turkey does not have a special law or regulation concerning the ICT and Web accessibility yet. Turkey has signed the World Intellectual Property Organisation-administered treaty titled Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works for Persons Who Are Blind, Visually Impaired or Otherwise Print Disabled on 1 November 2013. [update_date] => 2016-04-28 17:34:26 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Marrakesh VIP Treaty (Contracting Parties): [url] => http://www.wipo.int/treaties/en/ShowResults.jsp?lang=en&treaty_id=843 ) ) ) [23] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D1. Choice of living arrangements [theme_slug] => d1-choice-of-living-arrangements [theme_id] => 23 [contents] => The Republic of Turkey does not have an enforceable framework mental health law nor a law prohibiting arbitrary detention in psychiatric facilities. One of the key legal documents in this area is the Patients’ Rights Directive. The Directive provides medical doctors with guidance on basic principles including informed consent. However, the Directive permits the decision of admission to family members. Therefore, the Directive does not ensure individual consent even in cases where this might be possible. In addition, the Directive does not provide patients to make an appeal against an involuntary commitment or to appeal to a court. According to the Article 6 of the Law on Persons with Disabilities (Law no. 5378), the Republic of Turkey has shifted its approach to care for people with intellectual disabilities from an institution-based approach to an approach centred upon 'care at home'. In practice, the Republic of Turkey introduced an income means-tested 'at-home care allowance' for the families of people with intellectual disabilities in return of for their care services for their family member. However, in this model, the state does not still provide care support for people with intellectual disabilities and does not recognise the right to live independently from their families. As evidenced by the Mental Disability Rights International’s report, in 2005 community-based care services were not generally available for people with mental disabilities and their families. Independent Living Network, which included Human Rights in Mental Health Initiative based in Istanbul, declared that the key challenges to independent living in Turkey included individualised and medicalised understanding of disability, lack of understanding of the CRPD principles among disabled people, NGOs and policy-makers, legal provisions violating the rights of disabled people and creating obstacles to their full inclusion (i.e. guardianship), prevalence of traditional institutional care, limited range of and access to community-based services for disabled people, lack of accessible mainstream services and the emergence of new services for disabled people that are being promoted as community-based services but in fact are based on a medical model of disability and fail to provide disabled people with choice and control. [update_date] => 2016-04-28 17:40:55 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Patients’ Rights Directive [url] => http://www.saglik.gov.tr/TR/belge/1-555/hasta-haklari-yonetmeligi.html ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on Persons with Disabilities (Law no. 5378) [url] => http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex4.detail?p_lang=en&p_isn=77387&p_country=TUR&p_count=781&p_classification=08&p_classcount=39 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Mental Disability Rights International’s report [url] => http://www.disabilityrightsintl.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/turkey-final-9-26-05.pdf ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Promoting Independent Living in Turkey – Conclusions from the ILNET Project [url] => http://www.enil.eu/news/promoting-independent-living-in-turkey-conclusions-from-the-ilnet-project/ ) ) ) [24] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D2. De-institutionalisation [theme_slug] => d2-de-institutionalisation [theme_id] => 24 [contents] => Given that institutional care and treatment capacity of Turkey remain quite limited comparatively, 'de-institutionalisation' represents a change in the state’s approach to health services and social services for people with mental illnesses and people with intellectual disabilities rather than the replacement of exiting institutional capacity with community-based services.

The Ministry of Health issued the National Mental Health Action Plan (2011-2023) in 2011. Mental health services in Turkey traditionally relied upon an institution-based approach. However, according to the Action Plan, the Ministry of Health is dedicated to develop capacity in community-based mental health services, which might contribute to increasing choice for people with mental illnesses and/or mental disabilities to live in the community.

Article 6 of the Law on Persons with Disabilities (Law no. 5378), the Republic of Turkey adopted a family-centred approach to the care of people with intellectual disabilities. However, in practice, this approach has been largely the affirmation of the already-existing living arrangements of people with intellectual disabilities. Given the lack of institutional capacity for care, people with intellectual disabilities were effectively living in their family homes. Major change that this shift in the approach of the state towards treatment and social services for people with intellectual disabilities rendered has been the introduction of an income means-tested “at-home care allowance”. [update_date] => 2014-01-14 13:55:20 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Mental Health Action Plan (2011-2023) [url] => http://www.saglik.gov.tr/TR/dosya/1-73168/h/ulusal-ruh-sagligi-eylem-plani.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on Persons with Disabilities (Law no. 5378): [url] => http://www.ozida.gov.tr/ENG/?menu=legislation&sayfa=act ) ) ) [25] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D3. Quality of social services [theme_slug] => d3-quality-of-social-services [theme_id] => 25 [contents] => The Directorate General of Services for People with Disabilities and the Elderly is responsible for monitoring all care services in the country. Quality Standards for Care Services have been recently adopted on May 2013. The Director of the Directorate General of Services for People with Disabilities and the Elderly declared that they have formed a team of a hundred inspectors that will monitor all care facilities in the country and will submit their reports to the Directorate General. [update_date] => 2014-01-14 14:05:05 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Directorate General of Services for People with Disabilities and the Elderly [url] => http://www.eyh.gov.tr/tr ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Quality Standards for Care Services: [url] => http://www.eyh.gov.tr/tr/html/23891/Bakim-Hizmetlerinde-Kalite-Standartlari-Belirlendi ) ) ) [26] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D4. Provision of assistive devices at home [theme_slug] => d4-provision-of-assistive-devices-at-home [theme_id] => 26 [contents] => The Republic of Turkey recognises disabled people’s need for assistive devices at home as part of their medical needs. Therefore, public authorities do not make assessments of needs at home or provide alterations to private housing. People with disabilities can only get access to subsidised or free assistive devices if they receive a medical report indicating that they need a specific assistive device due to their medical conditions. The Social Security Institution issues Health Implementation Directives annually that specify which assistive devices will be subsidised by the state under which medical conditions. [update_date] => 2014-01-14 14:58:47 [links] => Array ( ) ) [27] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D5. Availability of personal assistance schemes [theme_slug] => d5-availability-of-personal-assistance-schemes [theme_id] => 27 [contents] => Personalisation nad user choice and control of social services for people with disabilities has not been introduced in Turkey. For instance, income means-tested 'at-home care allowance' is paid to the carer directly, who is predominantly the female member of the person with disability’s family. [update_date] => 2014-01-14 15:06:34 [links] => Array ( ) ) [28] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D6. Income maintenance [theme_slug] => d6-income-maintenance [theme_id] => 28 [contents] => The Republic of Turkey has a complex system of contributory and non-contributory benefit schemes run by the state. Turkey has a contributory pension system that is funded out of contributions of both employers and employees. Within this system, people with disabilities are entitled to pension benefit earlier than other citizens. The Republic of Turkey introduced income means-tested non-contributory income support scheme in 1976. According to the Law no. 2022, people with disabilities are entitled to a monthly paid income support scheme provided that they are not employed and they live under a poverty threshold. For people with disabilities that were found to have the capacity to work by medical authorities, the government introduced the conditionality to the non-contributory income support scheme to be registered with the Turkish Employment Institution and actively seek employment.

The Revenue Administration Department implements tax breaks for people with disabilities either working as an employee or self-employed. Level of tax breaks depends on the level of one’s impairment as determined by medical authorities. This tax break is approximately equal to 15 per cent of salaries for employees and 15 per cent of annual revenues for the self-employed.

In addition, income means-tested at-home care allowance in effect functions as an income support scheme for the families of people with disabilities. The level of at-home care allowance is higher than that of the non-contributory income support for people with disabilities and is equal to the level of net minimum wage. [update_date] => 2014-01-14 15:09:04 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law no. 2022 [url] => http://www.eyh.gov.tr/tr/html/8182/2.3 ) ) ) [29] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D7. Additional costs [theme_slug] => d7-additional-costs [theme_id] => 29 [contents] => The Republic of Turkey does not have any benefit scheme targeted to help people with disabilities to meet the additional costs of living with impairment, beyond basic income maintainance and tax allowances. [update_date] => 2014-01-14 15:10:18 [links] => Array ( ) ) [30] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D8. Retirement income [theme_slug] => d8-retirement-income [theme_id] => 30 [contents] => Turkey has a contributory pension system that is funded out of contributions of both employers and employees. According to the Social Insurances and General Health Insurance Law no. 5510, people with disabilities are entitled to pension benefit earlier than other citizens. Minimum amount of time that a person with disability is expected to contribute to the system (thus to continue working) in order to become eligible for pension benefit is 15 years. [update_date] => 2014-01-14 15:11:27 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Social Insurances and General Health Insurance Law no. 5510 [url] => www.mevzuat.gov.tr/Metin.Aspx?MevzuatKod=1.5.5510&MevzuatIliski=0&sourceXmlSearch=%C3%BC ) ) ) [32] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E1. Special schools [theme_slug] => e1-special-schools [theme_id] => 32 [contents] => There are both public and private segregated special schools for children with disabilities in Turkey. The Directive on Special Education Services sets rules and regulations concerning special education schools in Turkey. The Ministry of National Education issued the Directive on Special Education Institutions on 18 May 2012 that is aimed to set rules and regulations for private sector-run special education schools and special education and rehabilitation centres.

According to Ministry of National Education’s statistics in 2011, total number of public and private special schools for children with disabilities is 714 (this does not include a number of private sector-run special education and rehabilitation centres). 111 of them are private primary special education schools. There are 1605 private sector-run special education and rehabilitation centres operating in Turkey. Special education and rehabilitation centres offer special education and rehabilitation services for children with disabilities and counselling services for their families. [update_date] => 2014-01-14 15:17:34 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Directive on Special Education Services [url] => http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2012/05/20120518-27..htm ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Directive on Special Education Institutions [url] => http://ookgm.meb.gov.tr/meb_iys_dosyalar/2013_05/24111452_zeleitimynetmelik.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Ministry of National Education’s statistics (2011) [url] => http://sgb.meb.gov.tr/meb_iys_dosyalar/2012_12/06021046_meb_istatistikleri_orgun_egitim_2011_2012.pdf ) ) ) [33] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E2. Mainstream schools [theme_slug] => e2-mainstream-schools [theme_id] => 33 [contents] => With the promulgation of the Executive Order on Special Education in 1997, the integration of children with disabilities into mainstream schools has become the priority in the education policies. Article 15 of the Law on Persons with Disabilities (Law no. 5378) that was ratified in 2005 also strengthened this shift in education policies for children with disabilities. According to the Ministry of National Education’s statistics in 2011, 53,584 female and 84,309 male students with disabilities are currently enrolled in mainstream primary schools and 4,116 female and 6,774 male students are enrolled in mainstream secondary schools in Turkey. The number of students with disabilities has been increasing in both mainstream primary and secondary schools since 2002. [update_date] => 2014-04-17 18:09:17 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Executive Order on Special Education [url] => http://mevzuat.meb.gov.tr/html/1041.html ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on Persons with Disabilities (Law no. 5378) [url] => http://www.ozida.gov.tr/ENG/?menu=legislation&sayfa=act ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Ministry of National Education’s statistics in 2011 [url] => http://sgb.meb.gov.tr/meb_iys_dosyalar/2012_12/06021046_meb_istatistikleri_orgun_egitim_2011_2012.pdf ) ) ) [34] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E3. Sign language and Braille in school [theme_slug] => e3-sign-language-and-braille-in-school [theme_id] => 34 [contents] => There is no absolute right to the provision of communication in Braille or Turkish Sign Language in the mainstream education system. However, special education schools provide training on sign language and Braille. According to the Ministry of National Education’s statistics in 2011, there are 49 special primary schools run by the state that serves children with hearing disabilities. These schools teach sign language. There are 16 special primary schools run by the state that serves children with visual disabilities. These schools teach Braille and use training materials in Braille. [update_date] => 2014-04-17 18:10:01 [links] => Array ( ) ) [35] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E4. Vocational training [theme_slug] => e4-vocational-training [theme_id] => 35 [contents] => Article 4 of the Law on Persons with Disabilities (Law no. 5378) prohibits discrimination on the grounds of disabilities in all domains of social policies.

According to the Ministry of National Education’s statistics in 2011, there are both formal and non-formal education institutions that offer vocational training for people with disabilities.

There are 112 formal special education schools that can be categorised as vocational training institutions. There are two vocational high schools for students with orthopedic disabilities, 21 vocational high schools for students with hearing disabilities and 89 vocational secondary schools for students with intellectual disabilities.

There are 261 non-formal special education centres that provide vocational training for people with disabilities. 135 of them serve people with intellectual disabilities. 14 of them are vocational training centres for children with autism. 112 of them are private special education schools.

In addition to vocational training services of education institutions under the purview of the Ministry of National Education, Turkish Employment Institution offers vocational trainings for people with disabilities. According to the Annual Report of the Turkish Employment Institution in 2011, the Institution run 434 vocational training modules for people with disabilities and more than 4000 people have attended these modules. [update_date] => 2014-04-17 18:10:55 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on Persons with Disabilities (Law no. 5378) [url] => www.ozida.gov.tr/ENG/?menu=legislation&sayfa=act ) ) ) [36] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E5. Higher education [theme_slug] => e5-higher-education [theme_id] => 36 [contents] => Article 4 of the Law on Persons with Disabilities (Law no. 5378) prohibits discrimination on the grounds of disabilities in all domains of social policies including higher education policies.

The Directive on Counselling and Coordination for People with Disabilities in Higher Education Institutions was released in 14 August 2010. With the promulgation of this Directive, Special Commissions were established in each university to coordinate disability equality policies within higher education.

Special Commissions for Students with Disabilities work quite differently in different universities. While some universities committed more time and energy to make their institutions and curricula accessible for students with disabilities as well as more willing to implement disability equality policies, others remained largely inactive so far. Engin Yılmaz from Boğaziçi University, on behalf of the Platform of the Students with Disabilities, made a presentation in the official meeting titled “The Structure and Working of Special Commissions for Students with Disabilities” about the demands and expectations of students with disabilities from Special Commissions. [update_date] => 2014-04-17 18:11:46 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Directive on Counselling and Coordination for People with Disabilities in Higher Education Institutions [url] => www.yok.gov.tr/web/guest/icerik/-/journal_content/56_INSTANCE_rsRqRmHtxKK6/10279/18014 ) ) ) [38] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F1. Non-discrimination in employment [theme_slug] => f1-non-discrimination-in-employment [theme_id] => 38 [contents] => Article 4 of the Law on Persons with Disabilities (Law no. 5378) prohibits discrimination on the grounds of disabilities in all domains of social policies including employment policies. Article 14 of the Law on Persons with Disabilities (Law no. 5378) specifically addresses non-discrimination principle in the employment of people with disabilities.

The Republic of Turkey implements positive discrimination measures concerning the employment of people with disabilities. Article 30 of the Labour Law (Law no. 4857) proclaims that all employers hiring more than 50 employees has to hire at least 3 per cent of their employees from people with disabilities. Turkish Employment Institution is responsible for finding the right candidates for job positions and is authorised to fine companies that do not comply with this article.

According to Article 53 of the Civil Servants Law (Law no. 657), all public institutions are required to hire at least 3 per cent of all their employers from people with disabilities. [update_date] => 2014-04-17 18:12:38 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on Persons with Disabilities (Law no. 5378) [url] => http://www.ozida.gov.tr/ENG/?menu=legislation&sayfa=act ) ) ) [39] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F2. Public employment services [theme_slug] => f2-public-employment-services [theme_id] => 39 [contents] => The Turkish Employment Institution is the public body that is responsible for increasing employment of people with disabilities, providing vocational training services for people with disabilities and coordinating the implementation of positive discrimination measures concerning the employment of people with disabilities in the private sector.

Number of people with disabilities that were placed in a job position by Turkish Employment Institution has been on the rise since 2008. However, according to the latest figures in 2012, more than 100,000 people with disabilities are waiting to be placed in a job and have not been successfully placed so far. Turkish Employment Institution’s job placement and employee-employer matching services have been criticised both by people with disabilities and employers. In addition to the Turkish Employment Institution’s job placement services, some non-governmental organisations are also active in finding the right employee with disabilities for the employer.

According to the figures of the Presidency of State Personnel in 2011, public sector employs 20,829 people with disabilities. However, more than half of the total number of people with disabilities that has to be employed in public institutions in order to comply with the minimum of 3 per cent threshold, around additional 30,000 people with disabilities have to employed in public institutions.

According to the Turkish Statistical Institution’s figures, 4,240 people with disabilities have participated in 434 vocational training modules offered by Turkish Employment Institution in 2011. [update_date] => 2014-04-17 18:13:45 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Turkish Employment Institution [url] => http://www.iskur.gov.tr/en-us/homepage.aspx ) ) ) [40] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F3. Workplace adaptations [theme_slug] => f3-workplace-adaptations [theme_id] => 40 [contents] => The Republic of Turkey does not offer any guidance or financial support for workplace adaptations. [update_date] => 2014-04-17 18:14:08 [links] => Array ( ) ) [41] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F4. Financial incentives [theme_slug] => f4-financial-incentives [theme_id] => 41 [contents] => Article 30 of the Labour Law (Law no. 4857) proclaims that all employers hiring more than 50 employees has to hire at least 3 per cent of their employees from people with disabilities. In order to implement this policy, the Labour Law introduced financial incentives for employers. In line with the general framework set by the Labour Law, Social Security Institution issued a circular in 19 August 2008 that clarified the financial incentives. These financial incentives include full compensation of employers’ social security contributions by the Treasury for employees with disabilities hired so as to meet the minimum 3 per cent threshold. If companies hire more than this minimum threshold, the Treasury pays half of employers’ social security contributions for employees with disabilities. The Directorate General of Services for People with Disabilities and the Elderly declared that new financial incentives are forthcoming with the objective of promoting the establishment of supported employment opportunities for people with disabilities. [update_date] => 2014-04-17 18:15:28 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Labour Law (Law no. 4857) [url] => http://www.tbmm.gov.tr/kanunlar/k4857.html ) ) ) [43] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G1. Official research [theme_slug] => g1-official-research [theme_id] => 43 [contents] => The Directive on the Establishment of Database of People with Disabilities and the Provision of Special Identity Card for People with Disabilities was issued in 19 June 2008. According to this Directive, the Ministry of Family and Social Policies and the Ministry of Domestic Affairs are collectively responsible for the establishment of the Database of People with Disabilities. The Directorate General for People with Disabilities, which was closed down in 31 December 2011 and its responsibilities has been transferred to the new established Ministry of Family and Social Policies’ The Directorate General of Services for People with Disabilities and the Elderly, was responsible for the compilation of the Database of People with Disabilities. Currently, the Ministry of Health collects health data of people with disabilities. The Directorate General of Services for People with Disabilities and the Elderly publishes existing data on public services for people with disabilities by working with Turkish Statistical Institution and other related public bodies. [update_date] => 2014-04-17 18:16:52 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Directorate General of Services for People with Disabilities and the Elderly [url] => http://www.eyh.gov.tr/tr ) ) ) [44] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G2. Census data [theme_slug] => g2-census-data [theme_id] => 44 [contents] => The only national survey on people with disabilities was conducted in 2002. In this national survey, data on prevalence of disabilities (including chronic illnesses), types of disabilities, age, sex, educational attainment, marital status, employment status, social security status and the expectations of people with disabilities from public institutions have been gathered. The survey was conducted with a sample that has the representative power of seven geographical regions of Turkey and urban as well as rural areas.

Turkish Statistical Institution started to compile census data from address-based population registration system. The Institution published its latest census data in 2012. However, people with disabilities are not identified in the census data. [update_date] => 2014-04-17 18:17:46 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Turkey Disability Survey (2002) [url] => http://kutuphane.tuik.gov.tr/pdf/0014899.pdf ) ) ) [45] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G3. Labour Force Survey [theme_slug] => g3-labour-force-survey [theme_id] => 45 [contents] => Turkish Statistical Institute has been regularly conducting Household Labour Force Survey since 1988. This Survey has been the main data source on the labour market situation of Turkey from the perspective of citizens. However, people with disabilities are not identified in the household labour force data. In this survey, respondents -who told that they are not actively searching for a job- are asked to provide reasons why they are not actively searching for a job. Disability, with sickness and old age, are counted as one of the reasons of being not in the labour force.

Turkish Employment Institution provides data on the employment status of people with disabilities in the private sector. The Presidency of State Personnel provides data on the employment status of people with disabilities in the public sector. [update_date] => 2014-04-17 18:18:14 [links] => Array ( ) ) [46] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G4. Disability equality indicators [theme_slug] => g4-disability-equality-indicators [theme_id] => 46 [contents] => The Republic of Turkey does not regularly collect and publish data on disability equality indicators. However, the Turkish Statistical Institution conducted a national survey on problems and expectations of people with disabilities in 2010. In addition, The Directorate General of Services for People with Disabilities and the Elderly of the Ministry of Family and Social Policies started to compile and publish administrative and census data on people with disabilities. [update_date] => 2016-04-28 17:43:29 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Data on problems and expectations of people with disabilities [url] => http://www.turkstat.gov.tr/PreTablo.do?alt_id=1017 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Directorate General of Services for People with Disabilities and the Elderly of the Ministry of Family and Social Policies: [url] => http://eyh.aile.gov.tr/data/551169ab369dc57100ffbf13/engelli_ve_yasli_bireylere_iliskin_istatistiki_bilgiler_2016.pdf ) ) ) [48] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H1. Awareness raising programs [theme_slug] => h1-awareness-raising-programs [theme_id] => 48 [contents] => The Directorate General of Services for People with Disabilities and the Elderly, in collaboration with European Union and as part of Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA), opened up a call for applications to a grant scheme titled Improved Integration of People with Disabilities into Society. Non-governmental organisations working on disability rights issues are eligible for this grant provided that they develop projects to support the integration of people with disabilities into society. Call for application has recently been closed.

The Directorate General for People with Disabilities, which was closed down in 31 December 2011 and whose responsibilities has been transferred to the new established Ministry of Family and Social Policies’ The Directorate General of Services for People with Disabilities and the Elderly later on, run a nationwide project titled Turkey without Obstacles that started in 2007. As part of this project, The Directorate General for People with Disabilities officials visited all provinces of Turkey, gave lectures on the latest legislations on disability rights issues to a large audience including teachers, lawyers, medical doctors, engineers, social workers etc. and answered the questions of practitioners and representatives of disability organisations.

The Directorate General for People with Disabilities implemented another European Union funded project titled Fighting Discrimination on the Basis of Disability in Turkey in 2010. This project had two main activities. First of these is a research on the evaluation of discrimination on the basis of disability in Turkey. Secondly, a national symposium on fighting discrimination on the basis of disability was organised. [update_date] => 2014-04-17 18:21:00 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Turkey without Obstacles Project [url] => http://www.ozida.gov.tr/engelsizturkiyeprojesi/Default.aspx ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Fighting Discrimination on the Basis of Disability in Turkey [url] => http://www.ozida.gov.tr/ayrimciliklamucadele/ ) ) ) [49] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H2. Training for teachers [theme_slug] => h2-training-for-teachers [theme_id] => 49 [contents] => Specified training in disability is not mandatory for all teachers and not part of the Education Faculties’ curricula.

Ministry of National Education’s Directorate General for Special Education and Rehabilitation Services has been organising a set of in-house training courses for teachers that will be employed in special education for children with intellectual disabilities between January and September 2013. Members of disabled people’s organisations are not included as trainers.

Ministry of National Education has been running a 30-month project titled Strengthening Special Education that started in 2011. As part of this project, special education teachers will be trained in promoting disability equality in their schools. Members of disabled people’s organisations are not included as trainers. [update_date] => 2014-04-17 18:19:43 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Strengthening Special Education Project [url] => http://ozegep.meb.gov.tr/index.php ) ) ) [50] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H3. Training for lawyers [theme_slug] => h3-training-for-lawyers [theme_id] => 50 [contents] => Specified training in disability is not mandatory for all lawyers and not part of the Law Faculties’ curricula.

Some bar associations including Istanbul, Denizli and Adana established their in-house disability rights commissions. [update_date] => 2014-04-17 18:21:24 [links] => Array ( ) ) [51] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H4. Training for doctors [theme_slug] => h4-training-for-doctors [theme_id] => 51 [contents] => Specified training in disability equality is not mandatory for all medical doctors and not part of the Medical Faculties’ curricula.

Turkish Medical Association’s Declaration of Ethics specifically addresses discrimination on the basis of disability and prohibits it in medical practice. [update_date] => 2014-04-17 18:22:20 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Turkish Medical Association’s Declaration of Ethics [url] => http://www.ttb.org.tr/kutuphane/etik_bldgeler2010.pdf ) ) ) [52] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H5. Training for engineers [theme_slug] => h5-training-for-engineers [theme_id] => 52 [contents] => Specified training in disability is not mandatory for all engineers and architects and not part of the Engineering and Architecture Faculties’ curricula.

Union of Chambers of Architects and Engineers organised a workshop on accessibility in 2011 to raise awareness about accessibility and disability rights issues among architects and engineers. [update_date] => 2014-04-17 18:22:46 [links] => Array ( ) ) [53] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H6. International development aid [theme_slug] => h6-international-development-aid [theme_id] => 53 [contents] => Turkish Cooperation and Coordination Agency (TIKA) is the public body that is responsible for Turkey’s international development aid. TIKA has been investing in projects on education, restoration, water and sanitation projects, e-government projects, agricultural development, combating poverty, increasing the employment of women, infrastructure projects such as irrigation, health and transportation projects and constructing schools and hospitals as well as restoring architectural structures. Disability mainstreaming has not been identified in Turkey’s international development aid policies. [update_date] => 2014-04-17 18:23:53 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Turkish Cooperation and Coordination Agency (TIKA) [url] => http://www.tika.gov.tr/en/ ) ) ) ) ) ) )