Skip to main content
The ANED logo

The Academic Network of European Disability Experts (ANED)

DOTCOM: the Disability Online Tool of the Commission

Skip to search options

Norway

A. UN Convention status

A1. Ratification or conclusion of the UN Convention

Norway signed the convention 30 March 2007, and ratified it 3 June 2013. The Parliament (Stortinget) unanimously voted for the ratification 19 March 2013.

The late ratification was due to the time it took to change the legislation on guardianship since earlier national legislation was seen as not being in keeping with Convention article 12.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2014-05-01

A2. Ratification or accession to the Optional Protocol

Norway has not yet ratified the Optional Protocol. According to the first report to the UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, accession is being considered. However, the case was processed in the Parliament in November 2017, without the majority being granted.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2017-06-22

A3. Declarations, Reservations and Objections

Norway has not made reservations, but two declarations on the interpretation of articles 12 and 14/25. However, a Public Committee appointed in 2014 to consider changes necessary to ensure the fulfillment of basic rights to people with intellectual disability (the Rights Committee) express in their Official Report (NOU 2016: 17) doubt about the interpretation and conclude that Norwegian legislation and practice are in conflict with articles 12, 14 and 25 of the UN CRPD.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2017-09-13

A4. Comprehensive review

In the process towards ratification, a review was undertaken that was fairly comprehensive. It was considered that the Norwegian Act on guardianship was in conflict with article 12 of the UN Convention. A new law on guardianship entered into force in 2013. However, the Rights Committee appointed by the government concludes that the new law is in conflict with article 12 (NOU 2016: 17).

Links

Update date: Wed, 2017-09-13

A5. Focal point

There will be no new body in Norway. Each government department will be focal point for issues related to the jurisdiction of that department. The Department of Children, Equality and Social Inclusion is responsible for the coordination of disability policies, also with regard to convention focal points. The State Council on Disability was planned to be an advisory body (cf. Prop 106 S, 2011-12, p. 24) but this council has not been in operation since March 2012 and will not be re-appointed.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2015-02-27

A6. Coordination mechanism

The Department for Children, Equality and Social Inclusion is responsible for the coordination of disability policies and will also be the coordinating mechanisms related to the Convention

Links

Update date: Fri, 2015-02-27

A7. Independent mechanism

The Equality and Discrimination Ombud will be the independent mechanism. The proposition on ratification (Prop 106 S, 2011-12) discussed this and concluded that this body was independent enough according to the Paris principles on institution to promote and protect human rights (p.24).

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-12-07

A8. Official reporting

The first comprehensive state report was submitted 2 July 2015. It is yet not evaluated by the Committee.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2016-05-09

A9. Shadow reporting

There are two shadow reports, one from the 'independent machanism' (the Ombudsman) and another one from disability organisations. The report from the Ombudsman was submitted in July 2015 and the one from disability organisations was launched on 3 December 2015. The report from disability organisations have been a joint effort coordinated by the FFO (The Federation of Disabled Peoples' Organisations).

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-04-29

B. General legal framework

B1. Anti-discrimination legislation

The Law on Discrimination and Accessibility prohibits direct and indirect discrimination on the grounds of disability (including previous, supposed and anticipated disability, and also the disability of another person (e.g. a child or a spouse). This law also includes provisions on accessibility, universal design and individual adaptations. It was adopted on 01 January 2009 and is a civil law that applies to all social sectors. In working life/employment, it replaced earlier provisions against discrimination in the labour legislation (that adopted the EU Framework Directive 2000/78/EC). However, a new merged law against discrimination on different grounds (disability, gender, ethnicity, etc.) has been circulated and will be submitted to Parliament during the spring session of 2017. The new law does not comprise substantial changes in the protection of disabled people.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2017-06-22

B2. Recognition of legal capacity

Legal capacity is in general taken for granted. It is exceptions to legal capacity that are regulated by law. The most important law is the Law on Guardianship, but articles on restraint in the Law on Mental Health Services and Law on Health and Care Services could also be seen as relevant. The Storting (Parliament) decided upon a new Law on Guardianship in 2010 that came into force in 2013. The main principle is that people who cannot take care of their own interests should have a guardian. Disability is not listed among possible reasons for not being able to take care of one's own interests, but intellectual disability is, together with dementia, addiction, and serious health issues. The decision to appoint a guardian may comprise restrictions on legal capacity. This can be the case if there is a severe risk that the person will act in a way that would seriously harm his/her own interests. Such restrictions should be adapted to individual needs and not go beyond this. However, the new law on guardianship allows for restriction of legal capacity on grounds of intellectual disability, which, according to a recent Norwegian Official Report (NOU 2016: 17) implies direct discrimination and a violation against articles 5 and 12 of the UN Convention.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2017-09-13

B3. Accessibility of voting and elections

As a general rule all people aged 18 and above have the right to vote. It is also recognised that access to needed information for blind people is limited and that not all voting facilities are accessible. The Law on voting (valgloven) has articles on support when voting (article 9-5-5) and provides regulations concerning accessibility (article 26). This places a duty on the local authorities to make voting facilities accessible and to ensure that blind and visually impaired people can vote without using reading support (that information is available in an accessible format). The Delta Centre (national centre for accessibility) has published guidelines for accessible voting facilities.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2012-12-06

B4. Official recognition of sign language

Sign language is recognised as an official language in Norway. The status of sign language was confirmed by the Storting (Parliament) in March 2009 when deciding upon a White Paper on language policies (White Paper no 35, 2007-08). However, the legal status of this recognition is not fully clear. Sign language is part of two articles in the Act on Education, article 2-6 on sign language in compulsory school and article 3-9 on sign language in secondary education. The Law on Social Security (Folketrygden) also provides the right to sign language interpretation (article 10-7 f, g) as part of the system for assistive technology.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-04-29

B5. National disability strategy and action plan

Norway had national disability action plans from 1990-2001, but since then it has been mainstreamed that a set of action plans and strategies in different policy areas exist. The most important current plan is 'Norge universelt utformet 2025' (Norway Universally Designed 2025), with its first operationalisation (2009-2013) and the current Government's Action Plan for Universal design 2015-2019 (Regjeringens handlingsplan for universell utforming 2015-2019). The plan refers to the UN CRPD but came into effect before the Norway's ratification of the Convention. It is a general plan on moving forward to constructing a more universally designed country that contains a set of prioritised actions throughout the coming years. It has four priority areas: the built environment, area planning, transport, and ICT.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-04-29

C. Accessibility

C1. Transport accessibility

Transport accessibility is included in a number of laws or regulations, and has a chapter in the (former and) current National transport plan 2014-2023 (White paper (St meld) no 26, 2012-2013). The EU Directive 2001/85EC on accessibility to buses is implemented in the Driving Vehicles Regulations (kjøretøyforskriften), Directive 2003/24/EC; accessibility on ships is implemented (1 January 2009), and also extended to domestic passenger ships (in force for new ships from 1 January 2010). The EC 1107/2006 and EC 1371/2007 on air traffic have also been implemented. In general, the regulations apply to new transport vehicles, which means that vehicles with a long life span are relatively less accessible (ships, rail). Regarding an investment programme for new trains, requirements have been negotiated with disability organisations, and those requirements will be implemented as regulations. Bus stops, terminals, buildings, etc. are regulated by the Law on planning and building codes, which has universal design in its article on purpose and aims (in force gradually from 1 July 2010 to 1 July 2012). Regulations are gradually introduced and transport accessibility is included in the national disability action plans. Norway’s first report to the UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities provides an update on actions in the chapter on Article 20: Personal Mobility.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2017-08-17

C2. Built environment accessibility

The inclusion of accessibility standards in the regulations on the built environment has been undergoing a gradual development since the 1980s, with a quantum leap with the adoption of a new Law on Planning and Buildings on 1 July 2009. Most articles relevant for universal design have been in force from 1 July 2010. Universal design is specified in Article 1 (aims), 5-2 (involvement of parties), 12-7 (4) detailed area planning, 29-3 requirements on buildings. It is developed more detailed regulation in TEK (10) (technical building codes) addressing universal design in articles on aims (1-1), areas for the public (8-2), and buildings (12-1). In general, the requirements apply to buildings used by the public, but article 29-3 of the law also provides the legislative basis for regulation of work place buildings. Parts of the law and regulations refer to future standards or detailed regulations. The Government plans a stepwise approach to introducing such standards in different areas. Failure to comply with future standards will also be regarded as discrimination according to the Law on Discrimination and Accessibility. The state of art and current actions and priorities are described in the Government’s Action Plan for Universal Design 2015-2019, Chapter 5.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2017-08-17

C3. ICT and Web accessibility

The legislation on access to ICT is regulated by Article 11 in the Law on Discrimination and Accessibility. The law came into force from 1 January 2009. Article 11 has been in force from 1 July 2013 regarding new equipment/ services making it mandatory that this is universally designed from 1 July 2014. Existing technologies should be universally designed by 1 January 2021. Article 11 applies to ICT for the public and provides the Government with the legislative basis for developing standards or more concrete requirements concerning what is meant by universal design. The law cannot be enforced in a given area until 12 months after detailed regulations/standards have been provided. Access to ICT is the top priority of the current Government’s Action Plan for Universal Design 2015-2019. Regulations on universal design of ICT, which was adopted in 2013, is currently being expanded to apply also to the education sector.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2017-08-17

D. Independent living

D1. Choice of living arrangements

There is no obligation for disabled people to have a particular living arrangement, but for people that need extensive services the issue will be subject to negotiations between the person and the authority responsible for services, typically the local authority. In reality, local authorities have a freedom regarding how they organise services and this can be in conflict with the person’s right to choose where to live. On the one hand, very few disabled people live in long stay institutions in Norway and it is generally not regarded an option local authorities may choose. On the other hand, there are a few cases of young and middle-aged people that have acquired severe impairments who live in nursing homes for elderly (122 people younger than 50 years of age in 2015, according to the Norwegian Directorate of Health). Several national government programmes have been adopted to combat this, but due to shortage of alternatives, middle-aged people with acquired severe impairments continue to be admitted to nursing homes. While the public debate on this issue has been silent for some years, it has gained increasing attention after the ratification of the UN Convention, much due to article 19 stating the right to choose the place of residence, and a gradual trend in recent years in which community services have become more congregated and institution-like.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2017-08-17

D2. De-institutionalisation

The 1990s were the years of de-institutionalisation in Norway. In 1988 the Storting (Parliament) decided to close all institutions for people with intellectual disabilities (from 1991-1995), a programme to reduce long stays (to establish community alternatives) in mental health hospitals was implemented (White paper (St meld no 25, 1996-97), and also a programme to close long stay nursing homes for people with mental health issues and people with physical disabilities (NOU 1995: 14). Psychiatric institutions still exist, but their task is treatment and short term stays rather than long-term care. A few people with severe impairments are still admitted to nursing homes by local authorities, but this is against the national policy guidelines. However, there has been a trend in which community services have become more institution-like, which makes the right to choose the place of residence difficult for some groups. According to the Official Norwegian Report (NOU) 2016: 17, the proportion of people with intellectual disability living in large group homes (with seven or more) increased from 3% in 1994 and 16% in 2001, to 40% in 2010.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2017-09-13

D3. Quality of social services

The quality assurance mechanisms are basically the following: (1) individual complaints and appeals to the county governor (state representative in counties, Fylkesmann) on decisions/statements on service provision, and (2) auditing or inspections from the Board of Health (and in principle also from the National Audit Office). The Fylkesmann can also do inspections. There are regulations concerning Individual Plans which are not legally binding but that can be subject to complaints. The auditing is in general 'systems auditing' rather than quality investigations, that is, the auditing body checks to what extent systems and working procedures that ensure the quality of services exist and operate. Few concrete standards exist. There is room for discretional decisions on the part of local authorities, but these can be overruled by the Fylkesmann according to general legal obligations (such as 'professionally adequate'). A number of laws include loose standards and requirements such as “services should be according to professional standards” or in keeping with individual needs. It is up to the Fylkesmann to interpret what this in reality means, but it is sometimes ruled that a service is not in keeping with such types of standards. The Regulations on Management and Quality Improvement in Health and Care Services, adopted in 2016, aims to contribute to professionally sound health and care services, quality improvement and patient and user safety, as well as ensuring the compliance with other requirements in health and care legislation.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2017-08-17

D4. Provision of assistive devices at home

Provision of assistive devices takes place in collaboration between local authorities and Assistive Device Centres (one in each county) organised and funded by the National Social Security Scheme. Local authorities are responsible for meeting short term needs (less than 6 months) and Social Security is responsible for long term needs. Local authorities are expected to have an occupational therapy service involved in assessments. The right to assistive devices (beyond 6 month needs) is enacted in the Law of Social Security (article 10-6 and 10-7), which is a rights based law. This makes provision of assistive devices an individual right in Norway. It is a right for people, 'if necessary and adequate to improve functioning in everyday life or to receive care at home'; (author's translation). The Assistive Devices Centres are organised as a part of the Norwegian Employment and Welfare Administration (NAV). A recent innovation is the introduction of User Passes in provision of assistive devices. The Pass gives long term experienced users more say in the choice of device, service/repairs and replacement. This is expected to allow for more empowerment and user involvement, and also reduce waiting time and delays. There is currently criticisms from disabled people’s organizations because less expensive assistive technology that is also frequently in use by other people is removed from the list of assistive technology.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2014-05-01

D5. Availability of personal assistance schemes

The personal assistance scheme is enacted in the Law on Patient Rights, article 2-1 d, which places a duty on local authorities to provide personal assistants as one option for people that, due to disability, health issues or other causes have special needs. The provision of personal assistance is funded by local authorities, but can be organised by local authorities, a user cooperative (Uloba), private enterprises or the user him/herself (rarely the case). The needs are assessed by the local authorities. The service was enacted in 2000 for people who could manage the assistants themselves, but was expanded in 2005 to include also people that needed help for this (children and people with cognitive impairments). After years of struggle, the scheme changed from being an option local governments could provide to become an individual right of the user from 2015. However, the right only applies if the user is: a) younger than 67 years of age; b) has long-term service needs; and c) needs more than 25 hours of support weekly.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-04-29

D6. Income maintenance

The main income protection for adults (18-67 years) is the work incapacity pension. Eligible are people unable to work for health reasons. The benefit is for people with less than 50% work capacity. Disabled people are one important target group but the benefit is not restricted to disabled people. The level of compensation depends on work history (contributions to the national insurance scheme). For people becoming disabled after a history of employment, the average rate of compensation was until 2014 between 50 and 60% of earlier income and more for people with low income (NOU 2007: 4) but this changed to 66% with the new Act on disability pensions came into force from 2015. With this new law, people on incapacity pension do also have to pay regular taxes, thus the real after-tax income did not increase.

Specific rules apply to people becoming disabled before the age of 26 (with no work history and no payments into social security). Those rules grant them a minimum annual benefit of about 260,000 NOK before taxes in 2015 (about 27,000 euro). For people partly able to work the compensation is reduced (the majority actually receive 100% benefit). People aged 18-67 are eligible for the incapacity benefit. It is not tested against assets but income and work capacity. The payments are reduced if earnings exceed a threshold level (NOK 35,000).

In general, the incapacity benefit is not granted until certain procedures to try to find a gainful employment have been tried without success (work assessment procedures). In this period, people receive the Work Assessment Benefit (previously Temporary Incapacity benefit or Rehabilitation benefit) which in principle has the same level of compensation as the work incapacity benefit.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-05-20

D7. Additional costs

Grunnstønad (basic benefit) is supposed to cover extra costs due to longstanding illness or disability, ranging in 2015 from 8,040 to 40,152 NOK per year based on assessment (1 euro=9.4 NOK). About 50% receive one of the two lowest levels of support. If you are granted a car as assistive device, you will be provided the Grunnstønad at level 3 (16,105 NOK per year) to cover running costs.

Hjelpestønad (supplementary benefit) is intended to cover costs for private help. Many families with disabled children receive this support to compensate for extra care work, but adults may also receive it to compensate for the support family or other caregivers provide, even if they live outside the family home. The amount ranges from 13,404 to 86,472 NOK per year. Few receive more than the second level – 14,412 NOK annually (2015).

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-04-29

D8. Retirement income

The regulations for retirement income are quite complicated and under restructuring, implying that two systems of calculation will be in operations simultaneously. Calculations are basically based on a number of years one has been in employment, and also the income from work. If one has been on a disability pension, the income for those years is based on an estimate of the income if one had not been disabled (based on income before receiving incapacity benefit). People who have a right to incapacity benefit before the age of 26 (many with no work history) are subject to special regulations that protect them against a too low retirement pension. People with incapacity benefits receive retirement pensions from the age of 67, whereas people in employment can chose different options (mainly from age 62-70), but the choice has consequences for retirement pensions. The later one retires, the more one get annually. The benefit is not means-tested but is coordinated with benefits to other people in the household (reduction if two people in the household are eligible) and private/insurance pensions.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-04-29

E. Education

E1. Special schools

Children have a right to go to a local school (Law on education article 8-1). School authorities cannot refuse to accept a child. Parents may apply for an alternative school, this being a private school, another regular school, a special school or a regular school with special tasks/qualifications or a better built environment. If disabled children go to special schools, this is with the consent of parents. In reality many parents claim that they sometimes do not have much choice. If the headmaster meets them with the attitude that 'yes, you have a right to go here, but we do not have much to offer - you will be better off at a special school' - the freedom of choice is undermined. A longitudinal study of children with impairment from before the age of four, suggests that most children are in regular pre-schools, but as they grow older more children are segregated at each transition point. In upper secondary school, the majority is in segregated. There was also an increase in number of children in special schools or special groups at regular schools from 2002 to 2010 (Melding til Stortinget (White paper) no 18, 2010-2011). The increase was mainly due to an increase in number of pupils in special groups at regular schools. Based on the figures presented in the White paper, there appears to have been an increase in segregated education from 0.6% to 1.1% of all pupils.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-05-20

E2. Mainstream schools

Mainstream schools are subject to four different laws or articles related to disability discrimination and equality:

  1. Article 12 in the Law on Discrimination and Accessibility places a duty to individual accommodation on mainstream schools;
  2. Article 9 in the same Law places a duty of universal design on schools according to regulations of universal design;
  3. Chapter 9a in the Law on education has a number of provisions on the pupils’ environment relevant to disabled children, and disabled children are specifically mentioned in Article 9a-2 on the physical environment;
  4. Chapter 5 in the Law on education provides children with special education needs with the right to special education.

In 2017, the requirement for universal design in schools will be expanded to also include ICT. In general, the municipalities are responsible for education services and funding. The state provides some regulations and supports, but in reality the local authorities (municipalities) are responsible. In some municipalities, the responsibility is delegated to the school.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2017-08-17

E3. Sign language and Braille in school

According to Article 2-6 in the Law on Education, children with sign language as their 'first language/mother tongue' have the right to have sign language as their compulsory school language. The right also applies to children under school age. Article 2-14 provides the right to necessary education in Braille and use of necessary assistive technology according to assessment. The expansion from 2017 of the requirement for universal design to include all ICT solutions in education is important in this respect. Articles 3-9 and 3-10 cover requirements for secondary education.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2017-08-17

E4. Vocational training

Vocational training is normally a part of the secondary education system, with two years in school and two years as an apprentice with an employer. The regulations for school years follow the same regulations as other primary and secondary education. This is the general anti-discrimination clauses in the Law on Discrimination and Accessibility, and also article 12 on individual accommodation. The regulation in the Law on Education is for instance the right to special education (4-2) and individual learning plan (4-4). Furthermore, chapter 9a on the physical and psycho-social environment applies, including a paragraph that states that the physical design of the school should be in keeping with the needs of disabled students. In addition, from 2017 the requirement for universal design of ICT is expanded to apply also to all ICT solutions in education. For the two years of apprenticeship, the Law on Discrimination and Accessibility applies (and also the Law on Work Environment) - which provides regulations on reasonable accommodation, etc.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2017-09-13

E5. Higher education

The Law on Discrimination and Accessibility applies to higher education, and the Department of Education has provided guidelines describing the duties of higher education institutions (letter of 19 December 2008). Equally important is that the Law on Universities and University Colleges has an Article on 'learning environment' (article 4-3) enacting that (para g) 'the physical environment should be designed so that disabled people can study there', and (para i) that 'the learning environment should be in keeping with the principles of universal design'. According to regulations, this applies to more than the physical environment. All higher education institutions also have an obligation to have actions plans for the learning environment of students with disabilities (since 1999), based on Article 4-3 in the Law on Universities and University Colleges. The Ministry of Education has established a unit with a special national task to promote, coordinate and disseminate information on accessibility to higher education for disabled students. This unit is associated with the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. In 2011 the system for students’ loans were amended in order to change loans for delays due to disability into scholarships.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-04-29

F. Employment

F1. Non-discrimination in employment

Earlier non-discrimination in employment was enacted in labour legislation and followed the principles of the EU Directive 2000/78/EF. It has now been replaced by a reference (Article 13-1 (6) to the Law on Discrimination and Accessibility (Diskriminerings- og tilgjengeligetsloven). The Law on Discrimination and Accessibility provides regulation of discrimination including employment (article 4), a duty for public employers and private employers with more than 50 employees to work actively to promote equality (article 3), and requirements on individual accommodation (article 12). Furthermore, the Law on Physical Planning and Building Codes (article 29-3) provides the legal basis for the regulation of universal design of work places. In 2013, Norway ratified the UN Convention (CRPD), in which State Parties recognise the rights of persons with disabilities to work, on equal basis with others.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2017-09-13

F2. Public employment services

The Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration (NAV), with local branches all over the country, is responsible for advice services and support for disabled people seeking employment (in or outside mainstream). For people at risk of staying unemployed, a procedure called Work assessment (arbeidsavklaring) is conducted in collaboration between the subject and the NAV officer. The NAV has access to a number of labour market measures intended to facilitate the inclusion in mainstream employment, and also to sheltered employment at special sheltered workplaces or at regular workplaces. The tasks of NAV are not to assist disabled people as such, but to assist people with employment problems, and with special obligations towards people with so-called reduced ability to work, that needs what is called 'specially adapted measures'. The web link to NAV web page has specific information for disabled people. In addition, secondary schools are expected to provide personnel who can generally advise students about future employment. In 2011, the Government initiated a programme called 'Job strategy for disabled people' that specially addresses young (under 30 years) disabled people without employment. A number of measures are strengthened and directed towards this group.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2017-08-17

F3. Workplace adaptations

There are a number of measures for adaptations of workplaces for disabled people. Most of them are funded and operated by the Employment and Welfare Authority. Among such measures are ‘adaptation contribution’ (tilretteleggingstilskudd), 'adaptation guarantee' (tilretteleggingsgaranti), work place assessment by a physio-occupational therapist (arbeidsplassvurdering), etc. Many measures are related to the programme/agreement on Inclusive Labour Market (between the Government, Employers Federation, and the Labour union), but it is not exclusive to employers that have signed this agreement. In addition there is support for assistive devices/technology for people that need this in order to improve functioning in employment (Law on Social Security, article 10-5). This funding is part of the national Social Security system and as such an individual right.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2016-05-05

F4. Financial incentives

There are no quota schemes in Norway, but there are a number of financial incentives and programmes for improving qualifications, workplace adaptations, advice to employers, etc. The financial incentives include wage subsidies (temporary or permanent), combinations of incapacity benefit and wages, transport subsidies, adaptation guarantees, 'resting incapacity benefit' (if you have an incapacity benefit and finds a job, the benefit can rest for five years and you do not have to go through the application process again during this period if it turns out that work was not possible), etc. Some of the incentives are primarily directed towards the disabled person, others to the employer (such as wage subsidies, adaptation guarantee, adaptation contribution) and support services from the NAV arbeidslivssenter (Working Life Centres, a public advisory body). The incentives are part of a rather complex web of services, labour market measures and financial incentives. An overview is provided through the web link to a page at the Employment and Welfare Authorities.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2016-05-02

G. Statistics and data collection

G1. Official research

The National Centre for Documentation for People with Disabilities was responsible for putting together data on disability equality between 2006 and 2008. This duty led to Status Reports published in 2007 and 2008. In 2009 this body merged with the Equality and Anti-Discrimination Ombud, and the documentation task had less attention. It was therefore decided to transfer this responsibility to the Directorate on Children, Family and Youth (which also deals with equality and discrimination issues). They have established and are working to further develop a system of documentation that is adapted to the reporting on the UN CPRD. Important updated disability statistics are available on their website (see link below). Statistics Norway gathers data on the employment of disabled people, and the Welfare and Employment Authority gathers data on the use of benefits and employment/benefit careers of people with so-called reduced ability to work. The Directorate of Education gathers data on the use of special education and special schools, but does not distinguish whether this is due to disability or other causes. Other research is carried out through projects rather than regular official channels. However, a number of regular surveys conducted by the Statistics Norway have the possibility to identify disabled people through a set of questions on, for example, activity restrictions. This, in particular, applies to surveys on living conditions and health.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2016-05-02

G2. Census data

Censuses in Norway are conducted every tenth year. The last real census (national survey) was in 2001. It did not include question(s) that could be used to identify disabled people, but did include a question about whether the house/apartment was accessible for wheelchair users. The census in 2011 was based on putting together information that already was in administrative and statistical registers. Disability issues and statistics appear not to be included in this census.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2016-05-02

G3. Labour Force Survey

Statistics Norway gathers data on disabled peoples’ labour market participation annually as part of the national Labour Force Survey (Arbeiskraftsundersøkelsen). This survey is conducted four times a year by Statistics Norway. Since 2002, a disability supplement has been included once a year. The identification of disabled people is based on one self-assessment question. A definition of disability is read to the respondent, followed by the question 'Do you in your opinion have a disability?'; The definition read is 'By disability we mean physical or mental health problems of a longstanding nature that can lead to limitations in everyday life'. Then a number of examples are given.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2016-05-02

G4. Disability equality indicators

There is no full set of disability equality indicators in existence, but the Directorate of Children, Youth and Family (which also is responsible for equalisation policies) has established a system, which still is under development (see link below). The facts and figures are based on the statistics from a number of sources, such as research reports, data from Statistics Norway, etc. In 2012, Statistics Norway proposed a set of indicators based on a regularly gathered surveys' data (see additional link). The indicators are gathered for all people in surveys where disabled people can be identified mainly through questions on either self-assessments or activity limitations. The initiatives were related to the (then) coming ratification of the UN Convention (ratified in 2013). Confer also G1.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2016-05-02

H. Awareness and external action

H1. Awareness raising programs

The Equality and Anti-Discrimination Ombudsman has as a part of its task to promote equality for the groups protected by the equality and non-discriminations legislation (gender, ethnicity, religion, disability, and also in working life, sexual orientation and age). There are also, on a less regular basis, awareness raising programmes organised by the Directorates or other public bodies, and this is, in particular, a responsibility of the Directorate of Children, Youth and Family. Awareness tends also to be a part of action plans. I am not aware of any current awareness campaign, but in 2010-2013 there was one on the living arrangements for people with intellectual disabilities: 'People with intellectual disabilities should not be discriminated against'.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2016-05-02

H2. Training for teachers

Teacher education, both at the national level and at the university colleges, has no specific module on disability, but they will typically have some courses including such issues as adapted education, special education, inclusive education, diversity etc. Even the Circular on teacher education is somewhat unspecific on this issue. However, special education, adaptive education or the like is offered as optional modules and even as masters programs at some universities and colleges.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2017-06-22

H3. Training for lawyers

Disability equality/ rights/ awareness is not included in the compulsory parts of the study programme for lawyers. Disability is, however, a part of an optional module on Equality and Discrimination law, and also optional modules on Health legislation, Social Security and Social Welfare. This description applies to the Faculty of Law at the University of Oslo. Also, the University of Tromsø offers specialised courses in discrimination law.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2017-08-17

H4. Training for doctors

Few official sources report on the question of training for doctors, but according to informal well-informed sources (e.g. psychiatrist involved in needed qualifications for doctors to work with intellectually disabled people), there is very little on disability awareness or equality issues in the education of the medical profession in Norway. It can vary across universities, and there will be some teaching on the rights according to health related acts, including social security. There was nothing found on disability in a web search of the medicine programmes at the universities of Oslo and Trondheim.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2016-05-02

H5. Training for engineers

There is in general an increasing awareness on universal design and accessible technology observed among the Norwegian engineers and architects. It is however difficult to find specific courses in the curriculum but that is probably because it is part of the courses. According to the webpage of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, there are specific courses on universal design in the construction industry only at two Universities/University colleges. At one university, the technology department had recently advertised a position for an associate professor in universal design. The reason for the increasing awareness of disability and universal design in engineering is probably connected to the articles on universal design in the Discrimination and Accessibility Act (Chapter 3, paras. 13 and 15), and also the Article on accessibility to ICT (Chapter 3, paras. 14 and 29).

Links

Update date: Mon, 2016-05-23

H6. International development aid

The third Norwegian Action Plan on disability (1998-2001) suggested that disability issues should be included as an integral part of Norwegian developmental aid programmes. This was followed up by the Department of Foreign Affairs in 1999 with a 'Plan for working with people with disabilities in development aid' and a 2002 plan, check list and monitoring mechanism from the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD). The main idea is to include disability issues as an aspect of most development aid programmes. NORAD is also working with the Atlas alliance (Atlasalliansen) on development programmes. Atlasalliansen is a collaboration between disabled people organisations on international development aid. The 2002 plan was evaluated in 2011, published in March 2012. Some news were encouraging, for instance regarding a strengthening of disabled people organisations. However, the main result was that the 2002 plan led to few changes. Officers in the field were not aware of the official instructions, disability was not included in general programmes and only 0.5% of the funding was used for projects concerning disability. The Department of Foreign Affairs responded with a followup Action Plan in 2013. The impact of this is unknown.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2016-05-12

Search the database

Countries
( | )
Themes
(|)
Result view type

        Array
(
    [HOME] => /usr/local/www/vhosts/www-disability-europe-net
    [USER] => www-disability-europe-net
    [TEMP] => /usr/local/www/vhosts/www-disability-europe-net/tmp
    [TMP] => /usr/local/www/vhosts/www-disability-europe-net/tmp
    [TMPDIR] => /usr/local/www/vhosts/www-disability-europe-net/tmp
    [SCRIPT_NAME] => /index.php
    [REQUEST_URI] => /dotcom?l%5B%5D=40&t%5B%5D=3&t%5B%5D=4&t%5B%5D=5&t%5B%5D=6&t%5B%5D=7&t%5B%5D=8&t%5B%5D=9&t%5B%5D=10&t%5B%5D=11&t%5B%5D=13&t%5B%5D=14&t%5B%5D=15&t%5B%5D=16&t%5B%5D=17&t%5B%5D=19&t%5B%5D=20&t%5B%5D=21&t%5B%5D=23&t%5B%5D=24&t%5B%5D=25&t%5B%5D=26&t%5B%5D=27&t%5B%5D=28&t%5B%5D=29&t%5B%5D=30&t%5B%5D=32&t%5B%5D=33&t%5B%5D=34&t%5B%5D=35&t%5B%5D=36&t%5B%5D=38&t%5B%5D=39&t%5B%5D=40&t%5B%5D=41&t%5B%5D=43&t%5B%5D=44&t%5B%5D=45&t%5B%5D=46&t%5B%5D=48&t%5B%5D=49&t%5B%5D=50&t%5B%5D=51&t%5B%5D=52&t%5B%5D=53&view_type=list
    [QUERY_STRING] => l%5B%5D=40&t%5B%5D=3&t%5B%5D=4&t%5B%5D=5&t%5B%5D=6&t%5B%5D=7&t%5B%5D=8&t%5B%5D=9&t%5B%5D=10&t%5B%5D=11&t%5B%5D=13&t%5B%5D=14&t%5B%5D=15&t%5B%5D=16&t%5B%5D=17&t%5B%5D=19&t%5B%5D=20&t%5B%5D=21&t%5B%5D=23&t%5B%5D=24&t%5B%5D=25&t%5B%5D=26&t%5B%5D=27&t%5B%5D=28&t%5B%5D=29&t%5B%5D=30&t%5B%5D=32&t%5B%5D=33&t%5B%5D=34&t%5B%5D=35&t%5B%5D=36&t%5B%5D=38&t%5B%5D=39&t%5B%5D=40&t%5B%5D=41&t%5B%5D=43&t%5B%5D=44&t%5B%5D=45&t%5B%5D=46&t%5B%5D=48&t%5B%5D=49&t%5B%5D=50&t%5B%5D=51&t%5B%5D=52&t%5B%5D=53&view_type=list
    [REQUEST_METHOD] => GET
    [SERVER_PROTOCOL] => HTTP/1.0
    [GATEWAY_INTERFACE] => CGI/1.1
    [REDIRECT_QUERY_STRING] => l%5B%5D=40&t%5B%5D=3&t%5B%5D=4&t%5B%5D=5&t%5B%5D=6&t%5B%5D=7&t%5B%5D=8&t%5B%5D=9&t%5B%5D=10&t%5B%5D=11&t%5B%5D=13&t%5B%5D=14&t%5B%5D=15&t%5B%5D=16&t%5B%5D=17&t%5B%5D=19&t%5B%5D=20&t%5B%5D=21&t%5B%5D=23&t%5B%5D=24&t%5B%5D=25&t%5B%5D=26&t%5B%5D=27&t%5B%5D=28&t%5B%5D=29&t%5B%5D=30&t%5B%5D=32&t%5B%5D=33&t%5B%5D=34&t%5B%5D=35&t%5B%5D=36&t%5B%5D=38&t%5B%5D=39&t%5B%5D=40&t%5B%5D=41&t%5B%5D=43&t%5B%5D=44&t%5B%5D=45&t%5B%5D=46&t%5B%5D=48&t%5B%5D=49&t%5B%5D=50&t%5B%5D=51&t%5B%5D=52&t%5B%5D=53&view_type=list
    [REDIRECT_URL] => /dotcom
    [REMOTE_PORT] => 48890
    [SCRIPT_FILENAME] => /usr/local/www/vhosts/www-disability-europe-net/htdocs/index.php
    [SERVER_ADMIN] => webmaster@panthera.nl
    [CONTEXT_DOCUMENT_ROOT] => /usr/local/www/vhosts/www-disability-europe-net/htdocs
    [CONTEXT_PREFIX] => 
    [REQUEST_SCHEME] => http
    [DOCUMENT_ROOT] => /usr/local/www/vhosts/www-disability-europe-net/htdocs
    [REMOTE_ADDR] => 54.198.122.70
    [SERVER_PORT] => 80
    [SERVER_ADDR] => 192.168.20.44
    [SERVER_NAME] => disability-europe.net
    [SERVER_SOFTWARE] => Apache
    [SERVER_SIGNATURE] => 
    [LD_LIBRARY_PATH] => /usr/local/lib
    [PATH] => /sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin
    [HTTP_IF_MODIFIED_SINCE] => Mon, 22 Jan 2018 08:36:42 GMT
    [HTTP_ACCEPT] => text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
    [HTTP_USER_AGENT] => CCBot/2.0 (http://commoncrawl.org/faq/)
    [HTTP_ACCEPT_ENCODING] => x-gzip, gzip, deflate
    [HTTP_HOST] => disability-europe.net
    [proxy-nokeepalive] => 1
    [HTTP_AUTHORIZATION] => 
    [SCRIPT_URI] => http://disability-europe.net/dotcom
    [SCRIPT_URL] => /dotcom
    [UNIQUE_ID] => Wt2QrBrclSrquGb9Um@vAwAAAAM
    [REDIRECT_STATUS] => 200
    [REDIRECT_HTTP_AUTHORIZATION] => 
    [REDIRECT_SCRIPT_URI] => http://disability-europe.net/dotcom
    [REDIRECT_SCRIPT_URL] => /dotcom
    [REDIRECT_UNIQUE_ID] => Wt2QrBrclSrquGb9Um@vAwAAAAM
    [FCGI_ROLE] => RESPONDER
    [PHP_SELF] => /index.php
    [REQUEST_TIME_FLOAT] => 1524469932.3987
    [REQUEST_TIME] => 1524469932
)
        stdClass Object
(
    [input] => stdClass Object
        (
            [locations] => Array
                (
                    [0] => 40
                )

            [themes] => Array
                (
                    [0] => 3
                    [1] => 4
                    [2] => 5
                    [3] => 6
                    [4] => 7
                    [5] => 8
                    [6] => 9
                    [7] => 10
                    [8] => 11
                    [9] => 13
                    [10] => 14
                    [11] => 15
                    [12] => 16
                    [13] => 17
                    [14] => 19
                    [15] => 20
                    [16] => 21
                    [17] => 23
                    [18] => 24
                    [19] => 25
                    [20] => 26
                    [21] => 27
                    [22] => 28
                    [23] => 29
                    [24] => 30
                    [25] => 32
                    [26] => 33
                    [27] => 34
                    [28] => 35
                    [29] => 36
                    [30] => 38
                    [31] => 39
                    [32] => 40
                    [33] => 41
                    [34] => 43
                    [35] => 44
                    [36] => 45
                    [37] => 46
                    [38] => 48
                    [39] => 49
                    [40] => 50
                    [41] => 51
                    [42] => 52
                    [43] => 53
                )

            [view] => list
            [is_export] => 
            [export_type] => dotcom
        )

    [locations] => Array
        (
            [0] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 2
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 1
                    [rgt] => 2
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => european-union
                    [title] => European Union
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 1
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [1] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 3
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 3
                    [rgt] => 60
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => eu-member-states
                    [title] => EU Member States
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 2
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 28
                )

            [2] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 6
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 4
                    [rgt] => 5
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => austria
                    [title] => Austria
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 5
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 0000-00-00 00:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [3] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 7
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 6
                    [rgt] => 7
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => belgium
                    [title] => Belgium
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 6
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [4] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 8
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 8
                    [rgt] => 9
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => bulgaria
                    [title] => Bulgaria
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 7
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [5] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 9
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 10
                    [rgt] => 11
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => croatia
                    [title] => Croatia
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 8
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [6] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 10
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 12
                    [rgt] => 13
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => cyprus
                    [title] => Cyprus
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 9
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [7] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 11
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 14
                    [rgt] => 15
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => czech-republic
                    [title] => Czech Republic
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 10
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [8] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 12
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 16
                    [rgt] => 17
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => denmark
                    [title] => Denmark
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 11
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [9] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 13
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 18
                    [rgt] => 19
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => estonia
                    [title] => Estonia
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 12
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [10] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 14
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 20
                    [rgt] => 21
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => finland
                    [title] => Finland
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 13
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [11] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 15
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 22
                    [rgt] => 23
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => france
                    [title] => France
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 14
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [12] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 16
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 24
                    [rgt] => 25
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => germany
                    [title] => Germany
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 15
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [13] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 17
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 26
                    [rgt] => 27
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => greece
                    [title] => Greece
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 16
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [14] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 18
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 28
                    [rgt] => 29
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => hungary
                    [title] => Hungary
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 17
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [15] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 19
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 30
                    [rgt] => 31
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => ireland
                    [title] => Ireland
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 18
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [16] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 20
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 32
                    [rgt] => 33
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => italy
                    [title] => Italy
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 19
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [17] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 21
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 34
                    [rgt] => 35
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => latvia
                    [title] => Latvia
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 20
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [18] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 22
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 36
                    [rgt] => 37
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => lithuania
                    [title] => Lithuania
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 21
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [19] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 23
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 38
                    [rgt] => 39
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => luxembourg
                    [title] => Luxembourg
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 22
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [20] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 24
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 40
                    [rgt] => 41
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => malta
                    [title] => Malta
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 23
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [21] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 25
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 42
                    [rgt] => 43
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => netherlands
                    [title] => Netherlands
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 24
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [22] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 26
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 44
                    [rgt] => 45
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => poland
                    [title] => Poland
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 25
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [23] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 27
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 46
                    [rgt] => 47
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => portugal
                    [title] => Portugal
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 26
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [24] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 28
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 48
                    [rgt] => 49
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => romania
                    [title] => Romania
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 27
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [25] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 29
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 50
                    [rgt] => 51
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => slovakia
                    [title] => Slovakia
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 28
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [26] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 30
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 52
                    [rgt] => 53
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => slovenia
                    [title] => Slovenia
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 29
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [27] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 31
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 54
                    [rgt] => 55
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => spain
                    [title] => Spain
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 30
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [28] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 32
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 56
                    [rgt] => 57
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => sweden
                    [title] => Sweden
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 31
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [29] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 33
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 58
                    [rgt] => 59
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => united-kingdom
                    [title] => United Kingdom
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 32
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [30] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 4
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 61
                    [rgt] => 70
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => candidate-acceding-countries
                    [title] => Candidate / Acceding countries
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 3
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 4
                )

            [31] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 34
                    [parent_id] => 4
                    [lft] => 62
                    [rgt] => 63
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => fyr-macedonia
                    [title] => FYR Macedonia
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 33
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [32] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 36
                    [parent_id] => 4
                    [lft] => 64
                    [rgt] => 65
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => montenegro
                    [title] => Montenegro
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 35
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [33] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 37
                    [parent_id] => 4
                    [lft] => 66
                    [rgt] => 67
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => serbia
                    [title] => Serbia
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 36
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [34] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 38
                    [parent_id] => 4
                    [lft] => 68
                    [rgt] => 69
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => turkey
                    [title] => Turkey
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 37
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [35] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 5
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 71
                    [rgt] => 78
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => other-european-countries
                    [title] => Other European countries
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 4
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 3
                )

            [36] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 35
                    [parent_id] => 5
                    [lft] => 72
                    [rgt] => 73
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => iceland
                    [title] => Iceland
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 34
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [37] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 39
                    [parent_id] => 5
                    [lft] => 74
                    [rgt] => 75
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => liechtenstein
                    [title] => Liechtenstein
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 38
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [38] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 40
                    [parent_id] => 5
                    [lft] => 76
                    [rgt] => 77
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => norway
                    [title] => Norway
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 39
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

        )

    [themes] => Array
        (
            [0] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 2
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 1
                    [rgt] => 20
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => a-un-convention-status
                    [title] => A. UN Convention status
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 1
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 9
                )

            [1] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 3
                    [parent_id] => 2
                    [lft] => 2
                    [rgt] => 3
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a1-ratification-or-conclusion-of-the-un-convention
                    [title] => A1. Ratification or conclusion of the UN Convention
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 2
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 0000-00-00 00:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [2] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 4
                    [parent_id] => 2
                    [lft] => 4
                    [rgt] => 5
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a2-ratification-or-accession-to-the-optional-protocol
                    [title] => A2. Ratification or accession to the Optional Protocol
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 3
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 0000-00-00 00:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [3] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 5
                    [parent_id] => 2
                    [lft] => 6
                    [rgt] => 7
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a3-declarations-reservations-and-objections
                    [title] => A3. Declarations, Reservations and Objections
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 4
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 0000-00-00 00:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [4] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 6
                    [parent_id] => 2
                    [lft] => 8
                    [rgt] => 9
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a4-comprehensive-review
                    [title] => A4. Comprehensive review
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 5
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [5] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 7
                    [parent_id] => 2
                    [lft] => 10
                    [rgt] => 11
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a5-focal-point
                    [title] => A5. Focal point
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 6
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 0000-00-00 00:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [6] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 8
                    [parent_id] => 2
                    [lft] => 12
                    [rgt] => 13
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a6-coordination-mechanism
                    [title] => A6. Coordination mechanism
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 7
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [7] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 9
                    [parent_id] => 2
                    [lft] => 14
                    [rgt] => 15
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a7-independent-mechanism
                    [title] => A7. Independent mechanism
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 8
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [8] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 10
                    [parent_id] => 2
                    [lft] => 16
                    [rgt] => 17
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a8-official-reporting
                    [title] => A8. Official reporting
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 9
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [9] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 11
                    [parent_id] => 2
                    [lft] => 18
                    [rgt] => 19
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a9-shadow-reporting
                    [title] => A9. Shadow reporting
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 10
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [10] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 12
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 21
                    [rgt] => 32
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => b-general-legal-framework
                    [title] => B. General legal framework
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 11
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 5
                )

            [11] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 13
                    [parent_id] => 12
                    [lft] => 22
                    [rgt] => 23
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b1-anti-discrimination-legislation
                    [title] => B1. Anti-discrimination legislation
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 12
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [12] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 14
                    [parent_id] => 12
                    [lft] => 24
                    [rgt] => 25
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b2-recognition-of-legal-capacity
                    [title] => B2. Recognition of legal capacity
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 13
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [13] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 15
                    [parent_id] => 12
                    [lft] => 26
                    [rgt] => 27
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b3-accessibility-of-voting-and-elections
                    [title] => B3. Accessibility of voting and elections
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 14
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [14] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 16
                    [parent_id] => 12
                    [lft] => 28
                    [rgt] => 29
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b4-official-recognition-of-sign-language
                    [title] => B4. Official recognition of sign language
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 15
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [15] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 17
                    [parent_id] => 12
                    [lft] => 30
                    [rgt] => 31
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b5-national-disability-strategy-and-action-plan
                    [title] => B5. National disability strategy and action plan
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 16
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [16] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 18
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 33
                    [rgt] => 40
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => c-accessibility
                    [title] => C. Accessibility
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 17
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 3
                )

            [17] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 19
                    [parent_id] => 18
                    [lft] => 34
                    [rgt] => 35
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => c1-transport-accessibility
                    [title] => C1. Transport accessibility
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 18
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [18] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 20
                    [parent_id] => 18
                    [lft] => 36
                    [rgt] => 37
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => c2-built-environment-accessibility
                    [title] => C2. Built environment accessibility
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 19
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [19] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 21
                    [parent_id] => 18
                    [lft] => 38
                    [rgt] => 39
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => c3-ict-and-web-accessibility
                    [title] => C3. ICT and Web accessibility
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 20
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [20] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 22
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 41
                    [rgt] => 58
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => d-independent-living
                    [title] => D. Independent living
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 21
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 8
                )

            [21] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 23
                    [parent_id] => 22
                    [lft] => 42
                    [rgt] => 43
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d1-choice-of-living-arrangements
                    [title] => D1. Choice of living arrangements
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 22
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [22] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 24
                    [parent_id] => 22
                    [lft] => 44
                    [rgt] => 45
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d2-de-institutionalisation
                    [title] => D2. De-institutionalisation
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 23
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [23] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 25
                    [parent_id] => 22
                    [lft] => 46
                    [rgt] => 47
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d3-quality-of-social-services
                    [title] => D3. Quality of social services
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 24
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [24] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 26
                    [parent_id] => 22
                    [lft] => 48
                    [rgt] => 49
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d4-provision-of-assistive-devices-at-home
                    [title] => D4. Provision of assistive devices at home
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 25
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [25] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 27
                    [parent_id] => 22
                    [lft] => 50
                    [rgt] => 51
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d5-availability-of-personal-assistance-schemes
                    [title] => D5. Availability of personal assistance schemes
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 26
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [26] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 28
                    [parent_id] => 22
                    [lft] => 52
                    [rgt] => 53
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d6-income-maintenance
                    [title] => D6. Income maintenance
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 27
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [27] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 29
                    [parent_id] => 22
                    [lft] => 54
                    [rgt] => 55
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d7-additional-costs
                    [title] => D7. Additional costs
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 28
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [28] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 30
                    [parent_id] => 22
                    [lft] => 56
                    [rgt] => 57
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d8-retirement-income
                    [title] => D8. Retirement income
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 29
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [29] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 31
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 59
                    [rgt] => 70
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => e-education
                    [title] => E. Education
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 30
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 5
                )

            [30] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 32
                    [parent_id] => 31
                    [lft] => 60
                    [rgt] => 61
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => e1-special-schools
                    [title] => E1. Special schools
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 31
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [31] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 33
                    [parent_id] => 31
                    [lft] => 62
                    [rgt] => 63
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => e2-mainstream-schools
                    [title] => E2. Mainstream schools
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 32
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [32] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 34
                    [parent_id] => 31
                    [lft] => 64
                    [rgt] => 65
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => e3-sign-language-and-braille-in-school
                    [title] => E3. Sign language and Braille in school
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 33
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [33] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 35
                    [parent_id] => 31
                    [lft] => 66
                    [rgt] => 67
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => e4-vocational-training
                    [title] => E4. Vocational training
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 34
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [34] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 36
                    [parent_id] => 31
                    [lft] => 68
                    [rgt] => 69
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => e5-higher-education
                    [title] => E5. Higher education
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 35
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [35] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 37
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 71
                    [rgt] => 80
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => f-employment
                    [title] => F. Employment
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 36
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 4
                )

            [36] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 38
                    [parent_id] => 37
                    [lft] => 72
                    [rgt] => 73
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => f1-non-discrimination-in-employment
                    [title] => F1. Non-discrimination in employment
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 37
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [37] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 39
                    [parent_id] => 37
                    [lft] => 74
                    [rgt] => 75
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => f2-public-employment-services
                    [title] => F2. Public employment services
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 38
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [38] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 40
                    [parent_id] => 37
                    [lft] => 76
                    [rgt] => 77
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => f3-workplace-adaptations
                    [title] => F3. Workplace adaptations
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 39
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [39] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 41
                    [parent_id] => 37
                    [lft] => 78
                    [rgt] => 79
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => f4-financial-incentives
                    [title] => F4. Financial incentives
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 40
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [40] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 42
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 81
                    [rgt] => 90
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => g-statistics-and-data-collection
                    [title] => G. Statistics and data collection
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 41
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 4
                )

            [41] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 43
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 82
                    [rgt] => 83
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g1-official-research
                    [title] => G1. Official research
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 42
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [42] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 44
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 84
                    [rgt] => 85
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g2-census-data
                    [title] => G2. Census data
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 43
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [43] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 45
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 86
                    [rgt] => 87
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g3-labour-force-survey
                    [title] => G3. Labour Force Survey
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 44
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [44] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 46
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 88
                    [rgt] => 89
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g4-disability-equality-indicators
                    [title] => G4. Disability equality indicators
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 45
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [45] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 47
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 91
                    [rgt] => 104
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => h-awareness-and-external-action
                    [title] => H. Awareness and external action
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 46
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 6
                )

            [46] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 48
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 92
                    [rgt] => 93
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h1-awareness-raising-programs
                    [title] => H1. Awareness raising programs
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 47
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [47] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 49
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 94
                    [rgt] => 95
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h2-training-for-teachers
                    [title] => H2. Training for teachers
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 48
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [48] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 50
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 96
                    [rgt] => 97
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h3-training-for-lawyers
                    [title] => H3. Training for lawyers
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 49
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [49] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 51
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 98
                    [rgt] => 99
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h4-training-for-doctors
                    [title] => H4. Training for doctors
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 50
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [50] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 52
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 100
                    [rgt] => 101
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h5-training-for-engineers
                    [title] => H5. Training for engineers
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 51
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [51] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 53
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 102
                    [rgt] => 103
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h6-international-development-aid
                    [title] => H6. International development aid
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 52
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

        )

    [results] => Array
        (
            [40] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [parent] => Other European countries
                    [location] => Norway
                    [location_id] => 40
                    [location_slug] => norway
                    [themes] => Array
                        (
                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A1. Ratification or conclusion of the UN Convention
                                    [theme_slug] => a1-ratification-or-conclusion-of-the-un-convention
                                    [theme_id] => 3
                                    [contents] => Norway signed the convention 30 March 2007, and ratified it 3 June 2013. The Parliament (Stortinget) unanimously voted for the ratification 19 March 2013.

The late ratification was due to the time it took to change the legislation on guardianship since earlier national legislation was seen as not being in keeping with Convention article 12. [update_date] => 2014-05-01 10:55:31 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => FN konvensjonen om rettighetene til mennesker med nedsatt funksjonsevne (UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities) [url] => http://www.regjeringen.no/nb/dep/bld/tema/nedsatt_funksjonsevne/fn-konvensjon-om-rettighetene-til-mennes.html?id=511768 ) ) ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => A. UN Convention status [theme_title] => A2. Ratification or accession to the Optional Protocol [theme_slug] => a2-ratification-or-accession-to-the-optional-protocol [theme_id] => 4 [contents] => Norway has not yet ratified the Optional Protocol. According to the first report to the UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, accession is being considered. However, the case was processed in the Parliament in November 2017, without the majority being granted. [update_date] => 2017-06-22 15:29:41 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => FN konvensjonen om rettighetene til mennesker med nedsatt funksjonsevne (UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities) [url] => http://www.fn.no/FN-informasjon/Avtaler/Menneskerettigheter/FNs-konvensjon-om-rettighetene-til-personer-med-nedsatt-funksjonsevne ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Proposition on ratification [url] => http://www.regjeringen.no/nb/dep/ud/dok/regpubl/prop/2011-2012/prop-106-s-20112012.html?id=681280 ) ) ) [5] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => A. UN Convention status [theme_title] => A3. Declarations, Reservations and Objections [theme_slug] => a3-declarations-reservations-and-objections [theme_id] => 5 [contents] => Norway has not made reservations, but two declarations on the interpretation of articles 12 and 14/25. However, a Public Committee appointed in 2014 to consider changes necessary to ensure the fulfillment of basic rights to people with intellectual disability (the Rights Committee) express in their Official Report (NOU 2016: 17) doubt about the interpretation and conclude that Norwegian legislation and practice are in conflict with articles 12, 14 and 25 of the UN CRPD. [update_date] => 2017-09-13 12:20:50 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Proposition on ratification of the UN CRPD [url] => http://www.regjeringen.no/nb/dep/ud/dok/regpubl/prop/2011-2012/prop-106-s-20112012.html?id=681280 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => NOU 2016:17 [url] => https://www.regjeringen.no/contentassets/b0baf226586543ada7c530b4482678b8/no/pdfs/nou201620160017000dddpdfs.pdf ) ) ) [6] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => A. UN Convention status [theme_title] => A4. Comprehensive review [theme_slug] => a4-comprehensive-review [theme_id] => 6 [contents] => In the process towards ratification, a review was undertaken that was fairly comprehensive. It was considered that the Norwegian Act on guardianship was in conflict with article 12 of the UN Convention. A new law on guardianship entered into force in 2013. However, the Rights Committee appointed by the government concludes that the new law is in conflict with article 12 (NOU 2016: 17). [update_date] => 2017-09-13 12:34:43 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Proposition on ratification of the UN CRPD [url] => http://www.regjeringen.no/nb/dep/ud/dok/regpubl/prop/2011-2012/prop-106-s-20112012.html?id=681280 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => NOU 2016:17 [url] => https://www.regjeringen.no/contentassets/b0baf226586543ada7c530b4482678b8/no/pdfs/nou201620160017000dddpdfs.pdf ) ) ) [7] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => A. UN Convention status [theme_title] => A5. Focal point [theme_slug] => a5-focal-point [theme_id] => 7 [contents] => There will be no new body in Norway. Each government department will be focal point for issues related to the jurisdiction of that department. The Department of Children, Equality and Social Inclusion is responsible for the coordination of disability policies, also with regard to convention focal points. The State Council on Disability was planned to be an advisory body (cf. Prop 106 S, 2011-12, p. 24) but this council has not been in operation since March 2012 and will not be re-appointed. [update_date] => 2015-02-27 11:25:17 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => proposition on ratification [url] => http://www.regjeringen.no/nb/dep/ud/dok/regpubl/prop/2011-2012/prop-106-s-20112012.html?id=681280 ) ) ) [8] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => A. UN Convention status [theme_title] => A6. Coordination mechanism [theme_slug] => a6-coordination-mechanism [theme_id] => 8 [contents] => The Department for Children, Equality and Social Inclusion is responsible for the coordination of disability policies and will also be the coordinating mechanisms related to the Convention [update_date] => 2015-02-27 11:24:53 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => proposition on ratification [url] => http://www.regjeringen.no/nb/dep/ud/dok/regpubl/prop/2011-2012/prop-106-s-20112012.html?id=681280 ) ) ) [9] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => A. UN Convention status [theme_title] => A7. Independent mechanism [theme_slug] => a7-independent-mechanism [theme_id] => 9 [contents] => The Equality and Discrimination Ombud will be the independent mechanism. The proposition on ratification (Prop 106 S, 2011-12) discussed this and concluded that this body was independent enough according to the Paris principles on institution to promote and protect human rights (p.24). [update_date] => 2012-12-07 10:00:54 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => proposition on ratification [url] => http://www.regjeringen.no/nb/dep/ud/dok/regpubl/prop/2011-2012/prop-106-s-20112012.html?id=681280 ) ) ) [10] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => A. UN Convention status [theme_title] => A8. Official reporting [theme_slug] => a8-official-reporting [theme_id] => 10 [contents] => The first comprehensive state report was submitted 2 July 2015. It is yet not evaluated by the Committee. [update_date] => 2016-05-09 12:06:18 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Link to all UN reporting cycle documentation [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=129 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => State reports to the UN Committee [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=129&DocTypeID=29 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Norway Initial Report [url] => https://www.regjeringen.no/contentassets/26633b70910a44049dc065af217cb201/crpd-initial-report-norway-english-01072015.pdf ) ) ) [11] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => A. UN Convention status [theme_title] => A9. Shadow reporting [theme_slug] => a9-shadow-reporting [theme_id] => 11 [contents] => There are two shadow reports, one from the 'independent machanism' (the Ombudsman) and another one from disability organisations. The report from the Ombudsman was submitted in July 2015 and the one from disability organisations was launched on 3 December 2015. The report from disability organisations have been a joint effort coordinated by the FFO (The Federation of Disabled Peoples' Organisations). [update_date] => 2016-04-29 19:59:38 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Civil society reports to the UN Committee [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=129&DocTypeID=14 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Report from the Ombudsman [url] => http://www.ldo.no/nyheiter-og-fag/brosjyrar-og-publikasjonar/rapporter/crpd-rapport-2015/ ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Report from disability organisations [url] => http://www.ffo.no/globalassets/altrapptilfn_web.pdf ) ) ) [13] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B1. Anti-discrimination legislation [theme_slug] => b1-anti-discrimination-legislation [theme_id] => 13 [contents] => The Law on Discrimination and Accessibility prohibits direct and indirect discrimination on the grounds of disability (including previous, supposed and anticipated disability, and also the disability of another person (e.g. a child or a spouse). This law also includes provisions on accessibility, universal design and individual adaptations. It was adopted on 01 January 2009 and is a civil law that applies to all social sectors. In working life/employment, it replaced earlier provisions against discrimination in the labour legislation (that adopted the EU Framework Directive 2000/78/EC). However, a new merged law against discrimination on different grounds (disability, gender, ethnicity, etc.) has been circulated and will be submitted to Parliament during the spring session of 2017. The new law does not comprise substantial changes in the protection of disabled people. [update_date] => 2017-06-22 15:43:15 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Diskriminerings og tilgjengelighetsloven (The Discrimination and Accessibility Law) [url] => http://www.regjeringen.no/nb/dep/bld/dok/regpubl/otprp/2007-2008/otprp-nr-44-2007-2008-.html?id=505404 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Further information on the Diskriminerings og tilgjengelighetsloven (The Discrimination and Accessibility Law) [url] => http://www.regjeringen.no/nb/dep/bld/dok/nouer/2009/nou-2009-14.html?id=566624 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law text [url] => http://www.lovdata.no/all/tl-20080620-042-0.html#1 ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The equality and anti-discrimination Ombudsman [url] => http://www.ldo.no/en/ ) ) ) [14] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B2. Recognition of legal capacity [theme_slug] => b2-recognition-of-legal-capacity [theme_id] => 14 [contents] => Legal capacity is in general taken for granted. It is exceptions to legal capacity that are regulated by law. The most important law is the Law on Guardianship, but articles on restraint in the Law on Mental Health Services and Law on Health and Care Services could also be seen as relevant. The Storting (Parliament) decided upon a new Law on Guardianship in 2010 that came into force in 2013. The main principle is that people who cannot take care of their own interests should have a guardian. Disability is not listed among possible reasons for not being able to take care of one's own interests, but intellectual disability is, together with dementia, addiction, and serious health issues. The decision to appoint a guardian may comprise restrictions on legal capacity. This can be the case if there is a severe risk that the person will act in a way that would seriously harm his/her own interests. Such restrictions should be adapted to individual needs and not go beyond this. However, the new law on guardianship allows for restriction of legal capacity on grounds of intellectual disability, which, according to a recent Norwegian Official Report (NOU 2016: 17) implies direct discrimination and a violation against articles 5 and 12 of the UN Convention. [update_date] => 2017-09-13 12:36:40 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Decision on Law on Guardianship (vergemålsloven) [url] => http://www.regjeringen.no/nb/dep/jd/dok/regpubl/prop/2009-2010/prop-4-l-2009-2010.html?id=579112 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on Guardianship [url] => http://www.lovdata.no/all/hl-20100326-009.html ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => NOU 2016:17 [url] => https://www.regjeringen.no/contentassets/b0baf226586543ada7c530b4482678b8/no/pdfs/nou201620160017000dddpdfs.pdf ) ) ) [15] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B3. Accessibility of voting and elections [theme_slug] => b3-accessibility-of-voting-and-elections [theme_id] => 15 [contents] => As a general rule all people aged 18 and above have the right to vote. It is also recognised that access to needed information for blind people is limited and that not all voting facilities are accessible. The Law on voting (valgloven) has articles on support when voting (article 9-5-5) and provides regulations concerning accessibility (article 26). This places a duty on the local authorities to make voting facilities accessible and to ensure that blind and visually impaired people can vote without using reading support (that information is available in an accessible format). The Delta Centre (national centre for accessibility) has published guidelines for accessible voting facilities. [update_date] => 2012-12-06 16:16:51 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Regulations to the act on voting, voting facilities [url] => http://www.lovdata.no/for/sf/kr/tr-20030102-0005-006.html#26 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Further information [url] => http://www.bufetat.no/Documents/Bufetat.no/Deltasenteret/Publikasjoner/IS-1331_Tilgjengelighet_til_valg_veileder_kommunene.pdf ) ) ) [16] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B4. Official recognition of sign language [theme_slug] => b4-official-recognition-of-sign-language [theme_id] => 16 [contents] => Sign language is recognised as an official language in Norway. The status of sign language was confirmed by the Storting (Parliament) in March 2009 when deciding upon a White Paper on language policies (White Paper no 35, 2007-08). However, the legal status of this recognition is not fully clear. Sign language is part of two articles in the Act on Education, article 2-6 on sign language in compulsory school and article 3-9 on sign language in secondary education. The Law on Social Security (Folketrygden) also provides the right to sign language interpretation (article 10-7 f, g) as part of the system for assistive technology. [update_date] => 2016-04-29 20:09:52 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Mål og Meining. Ein heilskapleg snorsk språkpolitikk (Language and meaning. A comprehensive Norwegian Language Policy) [url] => http://www.regjeringen.no/nn/dep/kud/dokument/proposisjonar-og-meldingar/stortingsmeldingar/2007-2008/stmeld-nr-35-2007-2008-.html?id=519923 ) ) ) [17] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B5. National disability strategy and action plan [theme_slug] => b5-national-disability-strategy-and-action-plan [theme_id] => 17 [contents] => Norway had national disability action plans from 1990-2001, but since then it has been mainstreamed that a set of action plans and strategies in different policy areas exist. The most important current plan is 'Norge universelt utformet 2025' (Norway Universally Designed 2025), with its first operationalisation (2009-2013) and the current Government's Action Plan for Universal design 2015-2019 (Regjeringens handlingsplan for universell utforming 2015-2019). The plan refers to the UN CRPD but came into effect before the Norway's ratification of the Convention. It is a general plan on moving forward to constructing a more universally designed country that contains a set of prioritised actions throughout the coming years. It has four priority areas: the built environment, area planning, transport, and ICT. [update_date] => 2016-04-29 20:15:06 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Governement's Action Plan for Universal Design 2015-2019 [url] => https://www.regjeringen.no/contentassets/b335313065f440f6bd7cc203a8e0ce2d/regjeringens-handlingsplan-for-universell-utforming-2015-2019-1.pdf ) ) ) [19] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => C. Accessibility [theme_title] => C1. Transport accessibility [theme_slug] => c1-transport-accessibility [theme_id] => 19 [contents] => Transport accessibility is included in a number of laws or regulations, and has a chapter in the (former and) current National transport plan 2014-2023 (White paper (St meld) no 26, 2012-2013). The EU Directive 2001/85EC on accessibility to buses is implemented in the Driving Vehicles Regulations (kjøretøyforskriften), Directive 2003/24/EC; accessibility on ships is implemented (1 January 2009), and also extended to domestic passenger ships (in force for new ships from 1 January 2010). The EC 1107/2006 and EC 1371/2007 on air traffic have also been implemented. In general, the regulations apply to new transport vehicles, which means that vehicles with a long life span are relatively less accessible (ships, rail). Regarding an investment programme for new trains, requirements have been negotiated with disability organisations, and those requirements will be implemented as regulations. Bus stops, terminals, buildings, etc. are regulated by the Law on planning and building codes, which has universal design in its article on purpose and aims (in force gradually from 1 July 2010 to 1 July 2012). Regulations are gradually introduced and transport accessibility is included in the national disability action plans. Norway’s first report to the UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities provides an update on actions in the chapter on Article 20: Personal Mobility. [update_date] => 2017-08-17 13:22:14 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National transport plan, chapter 13 Universal design [url] => http://www.ntp.dep.no/Forside/_attachment/502793/binary/813774?_ts=1400c273da8 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Further information about transport accessibility [url] => https://bufdir.no/Statistikk_og_analyse/Nedsatt_funksjonsevne/Transport/ ) ) ) [20] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => C. Accessibility [theme_title] => C2. Built environment accessibility [theme_slug] => c2-built-environment-accessibility [theme_id] => 20 [contents] => The inclusion of accessibility standards in the regulations on the built environment has been undergoing a gradual development since the 1980s, with a quantum leap with the adoption of a new Law on Planning and Buildings on 1 July 2009. Most articles relevant for universal design have been in force from 1 July 2010. Universal design is specified in Article 1 (aims), 5-2 (involvement of parties), 12-7 (4) detailed area planning, 29-3 requirements on buildings. It is developed more detailed regulation in TEK (10) (technical building codes) addressing universal design in articles on aims (1-1), areas for the public (8-2), and buildings (12-1). In general, the requirements apply to buildings used by the public, but article 29-3 of the law also provides the legislative basis for regulation of work place buildings. Parts of the law and regulations refer to future standards or detailed regulations. The Government plans a stepwise approach to introducing such standards in different areas. Failure to comply with future standards will also be regarded as discrimination according to the Law on Discrimination and Accessibility. The state of art and current actions and priorities are described in the Government’s Action Plan for Universal Design 2015-2019, Chapter 5. [update_date] => 2017-08-17 13:25:33 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on Built Environment (plan og bygningsloven) [url] => http://www.lovdata.no/all/hl-20080627-071.html#5-1 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Government’s Action Plan for Universal Design 2015-2019 [url] => https://www.regjeringen.no/contentassets/b335313065f440f6bd7cc203a8e0ce2d/regjeringens-handlingsplan-for-universell-utforming-2015-2019-1.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Further information [url] => https://bufdir.no/Statistikk_og_analyse/Nedsatt_funksjonsevne/Bolig_og_bygg/ ) ) ) [21] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => C. Accessibility [theme_title] => C3. ICT and Web accessibility [theme_slug] => c3-ict-and-web-accessibility [theme_id] => 21 [contents] => The legislation on access to ICT is regulated by Article 11 in the Law on Discrimination and Accessibility. The law came into force from 1 January 2009. Article 11 has been in force from 1 July 2013 regarding new equipment/ services making it mandatory that this is universally designed from 1 July 2014. Existing technologies should be universally designed by 1 January 2021. Article 11 applies to ICT for the public and provides the Government with the legislative basis for developing standards or more concrete requirements concerning what is meant by universal design. The law cannot be enforced in a given area until 12 months after detailed regulations/standards have been provided. Access to ICT is the top priority of the current Government’s Action Plan for Universal Design 2015-2019. Regulations on universal design of ICT, which was adopted in 2013, is currently being expanded to apply also to the education sector. [update_date] => 2017-08-17 13:29:17 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Law on Discrimination and Accessibility (see Article 11) [url] => https://lovdata.no/dokument/LTI/lov/2008-06-20-42 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Government’s Action Plan for Universal Design 2015-2019 [url] => https://www.regjeringen.no/contentassets/b335313065f440f6bd7cc203a8e0ce2d/regjeringens-handlingsplan-for-universell-utforming-2015-2019-1.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Regulations on universal design of ICT [url] => https://lovdata.no/dokument/SF/forskrift/2013-06-21-732 ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Further information on the use of ICT by persons with disabilities [url] => https://bufdir.no/Statistikk_og_analyse/Nedsatt_funksjonsevne/ikt/ ) ) ) [23] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D1. Choice of living arrangements [theme_slug] => d1-choice-of-living-arrangements [theme_id] => 23 [contents] => There is no obligation for disabled people to have a particular living arrangement, but for people that need extensive services the issue will be subject to negotiations between the person and the authority responsible for services, typically the local authority. In reality, local authorities have a freedom regarding how they organise services and this can be in conflict with the person’s right to choose where to live. On the one hand, very few disabled people live in long stay institutions in Norway and it is generally not regarded an option local authorities may choose. On the other hand, there are a few cases of young and middle-aged people that have acquired severe impairments who live in nursing homes for elderly (122 people younger than 50 years of age in 2015, according to the Norwegian Directorate of Health). Several national government programmes have been adopted to combat this, but due to shortage of alternatives, middle-aged people with acquired severe impairments continue to be admitted to nursing homes. While the public debate on this issue has been silent for some years, it has gained increasing attention after the ratification of the UN Convention, much due to article 19 stating the right to choose the place of residence, and a gradual trend in recent years in which community services have become more congregated and institution-like. [update_date] => 2017-08-17 13:35:52 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Informasjon og utviklingsprogram for mennesker med utviklingshemming (Information and development programme for people with intellectual disabilities) [url] => http://www.regjeringen.no/nb/dep/bld/dok/rapporter_planer/rapporter/2010/informasjons-og-utviklingsprogram-for-me.html?id=621141 ) ) ) [24] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D2. De-institutionalisation [theme_slug] => d2-de-institutionalisation [theme_id] => 24 [contents] => The 1990s were the years of de-institutionalisation in Norway. In 1988 the Storting (Parliament) decided to close all institutions for people with intellectual disabilities (from 1991-1995), a programme to reduce long stays (to establish community alternatives) in mental health hospitals was implemented (White paper (St meld no 25, 1996-97), and also a programme to close long stay nursing homes for people with mental health issues and people with physical disabilities (NOU 1995: 14). Psychiatric institutions still exist, but their task is treatment and short term stays rather than long-term care. A few people with severe impairments are still admitted to nursing homes by local authorities, but this is against the national policy guidelines. However, there has been a trend in which community services have become more institution-like, which makes the right to choose the place of residence difficult for some groups. According to the Official Norwegian Report (NOU) 2016: 17, the proportion of people with intellectual disability living in large group homes (with seven or more) increased from 3% in 1994 and 16% in 2001, to 40% in 2010. [update_date] => 2017-09-13 12:42:22 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Development Programme for people with intellectual disabilities [url] => http://www.regjeringen.no/nb/dep/bld/dok/rapporter_planer/rapporter/2010/informasjons-og-utviklingsprogram-for-me.html?id=621141 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Further information [url] => https://naku.no/kunnskapsbanken/bofellesskap-forskning#main-content ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => NOU 2016:17 [url] => https://www.regjeringen.no/contentassets/b0baf226586543ada7c530b4482678b8/no/pdfs/nou201620160017000dddpdfs.pdf ) ) ) [25] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D3. Quality of social services [theme_slug] => d3-quality-of-social-services [theme_id] => 25 [contents] => The quality assurance mechanisms are basically the following: (1) individual complaints and appeals to the county governor (state representative in counties, Fylkesmann) on decisions/statements on service provision, and (2) auditing or inspections from the Board of Health (and in principle also from the National Audit Office). The Fylkesmann can also do inspections. There are regulations concerning Individual Plans which are not legally binding but that can be subject to complaints. The auditing is in general 'systems auditing' rather than quality investigations, that is, the auditing body checks to what extent systems and working procedures that ensure the quality of services exist and operate. Few concrete standards exist. There is room for discretional decisions on the part of local authorities, but these can be overruled by the Fylkesmann according to general legal obligations (such as 'professionally adequate'). A number of laws include loose standards and requirements such as “services should be according to professional standards” or in keeping with individual needs. It is up to the Fylkesmann to interpret what this in reality means, but it is sometimes ruled that a service is not in keeping with such types of standards. The Regulations on Management and Quality Improvement in Health and Care Services, adopted in 2016, aims to contribute to professionally sound health and care services, quality improvement and patient and user safety, as well as ensuring the compliance with other requirements in health and care legislation. [update_date] => 2017-08-17 13:43:30 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The legal basis of the inspection authority of the Board of Health [url] => http://www.helsetilsynet.no/no/Toppmeny/Om-helsetilsynet/Myndigheit/ ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Regulations on management and quality improvement in health- and care services [url] => https://lovdata.no/dokument/SF/forskrift/2016-10-28-1250 ) ) ) [26] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D4. Provision of assistive devices at home [theme_slug] => d4-provision-of-assistive-devices-at-home [theme_id] => 26 [contents] => Provision of assistive devices takes place in collaboration between local authorities and Assistive Device Centres (one in each county) organised and funded by the National Social Security Scheme. Local authorities are responsible for meeting short term needs (less than 6 months) and Social Security is responsible for long term needs. Local authorities are expected to have an occupational therapy service involved in assessments. The right to assistive devices (beyond 6 month needs) is enacted in the Law of Social Security (article 10-6 and 10-7), which is a rights based law. This makes provision of assistive devices an individual right in Norway. It is a right for people, 'if necessary and adequate to improve functioning in everyday life or to receive care at home'; (author's translation). The Assistive Devices Centres are organised as a part of the Norwegian Employment and Welfare Administration (NAV). A recent innovation is the introduction of User Passes in provision of assistive devices. The Pass gives long term experienced users more say in the choice of device, service/repairs and replacement. This is expected to allow for more empowerment and user involvement, and also reduce waiting time and delays. There is currently criticisms from disabled people’s organizations because less expensive assistive technology that is also frequently in use by other people is removed from the list of assistive technology. [update_date] => 2014-05-01 10:59:43 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Circular on the right to support to better functioning in everyday life [url] => http://www.nav.no/rettskildene/Rundskriv/%C2%A7+10-6+-+St%C3%B8nad+til+bedring+av+funksjonsevnen+i+dagliglivet.147986.cms ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Further information [url] => http://www.nav.no/Helse/Hjelpemidler ) ) ) [27] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D5. Availability of personal assistance schemes [theme_slug] => d5-availability-of-personal-assistance-schemes [theme_id] => 27 [contents] => The personal assistance scheme is enacted in the Law on Patient Rights, article 2-1 d, which places a duty on local authorities to provide personal assistants as one option for people that, due to disability, health issues or other causes have special needs. The provision of personal assistance is funded by local authorities, but can be organised by local authorities, a user cooperative (Uloba), private enterprises or the user him/herself (rarely the case). The needs are assessed by the local authorities. The service was enacted in 2000 for people who could manage the assistants themselves, but was expanded in 2005 to include also people that needed help for this (children and people with cognitive impairments). After years of struggle, the scheme changed from being an option local governments could provide to become an individual right of the user from 2015. However, the right only applies if the user is: a) younger than 67 years of age; b) has long-term service needs; and c) needs more than 25 hours of support weekly. [update_date] => 2016-04-29 20:38:51 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on Patient Rights [url] => https://lovdata.no/dokument/NL/lov/1999-07-02-63 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Description from a user cooperative Uloba: [url] => http://www.uloba.no/funksjonshemmet/Sider/default.aspx ) ) ) [28] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D6. Income maintenance [theme_slug] => d6-income-maintenance [theme_id] => 28 [contents] => The main income protection for adults (18-67 years) is the work incapacity pension. Eligible are people unable to work for health reasons. The benefit is for people with less than 50% work capacity. Disabled people are one important target group but the benefit is not restricted to disabled people. The level of compensation depends on work history (contributions to the national insurance scheme). For people becoming disabled after a history of employment, the average rate of compensation was until 2014 between 50 and 60% of earlier income and more for people with low income (NOU 2007: 4) but this changed to 66% with the new Act on disability pensions came into force from 2015. With this new law, people on incapacity pension do also have to pay regular taxes, thus the real after-tax income did not increase.

Specific rules apply to people becoming disabled before the age of 26 (with no work history and no payments into social security). Those rules grant them a minimum annual benefit of about 260,000 NOK before taxes in 2015 (about 27,000 euro). For people partly able to work the compensation is reduced (the majority actually receive 100% benefit). People aged 18-67 are eligible for the incapacity benefit. It is not tested against assets but income and work capacity. The payments are reduced if earnings exceed a threshold level (NOK 35,000).

In general, the incapacity benefit is not granted until certain procedures to try to find a gainful employment have been tried without success (work assessment procedures). In this period, people receive the Work Assessment Benefit (previously Temporary Incapacity benefit or Rehabilitation benefit) which in principle has the same level of compensation as the work incapacity benefit. [update_date] => 2016-05-20 16:31:30 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Incapacity benefit (uførepensjon) [url] => https://lovdata.no/dokument/NL/lov/1997-02-28-19/KAPITTEL_5-8 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Further information [url] => http://www.regjeringen.no/nb/dep/ad/dok/regpubl/prop/2009-2010/Prop-82-L-2009-2010.html?id=594496 ) ) ) [29] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D7. Additional costs [theme_slug] => d7-additional-costs [theme_id] => 29 [contents] => Grunnstønad (basic benefit) is supposed to cover extra costs due to longstanding illness or disability, ranging in 2015 from 8,040 to 40,152 NOK per year based on assessment (1 euro=9.4 NOK). About 50% receive one of the two lowest levels of support. If you are granted a car as assistive device, you will be provided the Grunnstønad at level 3 (16,105 NOK per year) to cover running costs.

Hjelpestønad (supplementary benefit) is intended to cover costs for private help. Many families with disabled children receive this support to compensate for extra care work, but adults may also receive it to compensate for the support family or other caregivers provide, even if they live outside the family home. The amount ranges from 13,404 to 86,472 NOK per year. Few receive more than the second level – 14,412 NOK annually (2015). [update_date] => 2016-04-29 20:46:35 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Grunn og hjelpestønad (basic and supplementary benefits) [url] => https://www.nav.no/no/Person/Familie/Grunn+og+hjelpestonad ) ) ) [30] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D8. Retirement income [theme_slug] => d8-retirement-income [theme_id] => 30 [contents] => The regulations for retirement income are quite complicated and under restructuring, implying that two systems of calculation will be in operations simultaneously. Calculations are basically based on a number of years one has been in employment, and also the income from work. If one has been on a disability pension, the income for those years is based on an estimate of the income if one had not been disabled (based on income before receiving incapacity benefit). People who have a right to incapacity benefit before the age of 26 (many with no work history) are subject to special regulations that protect them against a too low retirement pension. People with incapacity benefits receive retirement pensions from the age of 67, whereas people in employment can chose different options (mainly from age 62-70), but the choice has consequences for retirement pensions. The later one retires, the more one get annually. The benefit is not means-tested but is coordinated with benefits to other people in the household (reduction if two people in the household are eligible) and private/insurance pensions. [update_date] => 2016-04-29 20:48:38 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Retirement pension for people with incapacity benefit [url] => https://www.nav.no/no/Person/Pensjon/Relatert+informasjon/uføretrygd-og-opptjening-av-alderspensjon ) ) ) [32] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E1. Special schools [theme_slug] => e1-special-schools [theme_id] => 32 [contents] => Children have a right to go to a local school (Law on education article 8-1). School authorities cannot refuse to accept a child. Parents may apply for an alternative school, this being a private school, another regular school, a special school or a regular school with special tasks/qualifications or a better built environment. If disabled children go to special schools, this is with the consent of parents. In reality many parents claim that they sometimes do not have much choice. If the headmaster meets them with the attitude that 'yes, you have a right to go here, but we do not have much to offer - you will be better off at a special school' - the freedom of choice is undermined. A longitudinal study of children with impairment from before the age of four, suggests that most children are in regular pre-schools, but as they grow older more children are segregated at each transition point. In upper secondary school, the majority is in segregated. There was also an increase in number of children in special schools or special groups at regular schools from 2002 to 2010 (Melding til Stortinget (White paper) no 18, 2010-2011). The increase was mainly due to an increase in number of pupils in special groups at regular schools. Based on the figures presented in the White paper, there appears to have been an increase in segregated education from 0.6% to 1.1% of all pupils. [update_date] => 2016-05-20 16:36:50 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on education, chapter 8 [url] => http://www.lovdata.no/all/tl-19980717-061-009.html ) ) ) [33] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E2. Mainstream schools [theme_slug] => e2-mainstream-schools [theme_id] => 33 [contents] => Mainstream schools are subject to four different laws or articles related to disability discrimination and equality:

  1. Article 12 in the Law on Discrimination and Accessibility places a duty to individual accommodation on mainstream schools;
  2. Article 9 in the same Law places a duty of universal design on schools according to regulations of universal design;
  3. Chapter 9a in the Law on education has a number of provisions on the pupils’ environment relevant to disabled children, and disabled children are specifically mentioned in Article 9a-2 on the physical environment;
  4. Chapter 5 in the Law on education provides children with special education needs with the right to special education.

In 2017, the requirement for universal design in schools will be expanded to also include ICT. In general, the municipalities are responsible for education services and funding. The state provides some regulations and supports, but in reality the local authorities (municipalities) are responsible. In some municipalities, the responsibility is delegated to the school. [update_date] => 2017-08-17 13:45:24 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on education [url] => http://www.lovdata.no/all/tl-19980717-061-009.html ) ) ) [34] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E3. Sign language and Braille in school [theme_slug] => e3-sign-language-and-braille-in-school [theme_id] => 34 [contents] => According to Article 2-6 in the Law on Education, children with sign language as their 'first language/mother tongue' have the right to have sign language as their compulsory school language. The right also applies to children under school age. Article 2-14 provides the right to necessary education in Braille and use of necessary assistive technology according to assessment. The expansion from 2017 of the requirement for universal design to include all ICT solutions in education is important in this respect. Articles 3-9 and 3-10 cover requirements for secondary education. [update_date] => 2017-08-17 13:46:59 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Sign language in compulsory school [url] => http://www.lovdata.no/all/hl-19980717-061.html#2-6 ) ) ) [35] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E4. Vocational training [theme_slug] => e4-vocational-training [theme_id] => 35 [contents] => Vocational training is normally a part of the secondary education system, with two years in school and two years as an apprentice with an employer. The regulations for school years follow the same regulations as other primary and secondary education. This is the general anti-discrimination clauses in the Law on Discrimination and Accessibility, and also article 12 on individual accommodation. The regulation in the Law on Education is for instance the right to special education (4-2) and individual learning plan (4-4). Furthermore, chapter 9a on the physical and psycho-social environment applies, including a paragraph that states that the physical design of the school should be in keeping with the needs of disabled students. In addition, from 2017 the requirement for universal design of ICT is expanded to apply also to all ICT solutions in education. For the two years of apprenticeship, the Law on Discrimination and Accessibility applies (and also the Law on Work Environment) - which provides regulations on reasonable accommodation, etc. [update_date] => 2017-09-13 12:54:27 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on Education, chapter 9a [url] => https://lovdata.no/dokument/NL/lov/1998-07-17-61/KAPITTEL_11#KAPITTEL_11 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Anti-Discrimination and Accessibility Law [url] => https://lovdata.no/dokument/NL/lov/2013-06-21-61 ) ) ) [36] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E5. Higher education [theme_slug] => e5-higher-education [theme_id] => 36 [contents] => The Law on Discrimination and Accessibility applies to higher education, and the Department of Education has provided guidelines describing the duties of higher education institutions (letter of 19 December 2008). Equally important is that the Law on Universities and University Colleges has an Article on 'learning environment' (article 4-3) enacting that (para g) 'the physical environment should be designed so that disabled people can study there', and (para i) that 'the learning environment should be in keeping with the principles of universal design'. According to regulations, this applies to more than the physical environment. All higher education institutions also have an obligation to have actions plans for the learning environment of students with disabilities (since 1999), based on Article 4-3 in the Law on Universities and University Colleges. The Ministry of Education has established a unit with a special national task to promote, coordinate and disseminate information on accessibility to higher education for disabled students. This unit is associated with the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. In 2011 the system for students’ loans were amended in order to change loans for delays due to disability into scholarships. [update_date] => 2016-04-29 20:55:40 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on Universities and higher education, article 4-3 [url] => http://www.lovdata.no/all/tl-20050401-015-005.html#4-3 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National coordinator of accessibility in higher education: [url] => http://www.universell.no/english/ ) ) ) [38] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F1. Non-discrimination in employment [theme_slug] => f1-non-discrimination-in-employment [theme_id] => 38 [contents] => Earlier non-discrimination in employment was enacted in labour legislation and followed the principles of the EU Directive 2000/78/EF. It has now been replaced by a reference (Article 13-1 (6) to the Law on Discrimination and Accessibility (Diskriminerings- og tilgjengeligetsloven). The Law on Discrimination and Accessibility provides regulation of discrimination including employment (article 4), a duty for public employers and private employers with more than 50 employees to work actively to promote equality (article 3), and requirements on individual accommodation (article 12). Furthermore, the Law on Physical Planning and Building Codes (article 29-3) provides the legal basis for the regulation of universal design of work places. In 2013, Norway ratified the UN Convention (CRPD), in which State Parties recognise the rights of persons with disabilities to work, on equal basis with others. [update_date] => 2017-09-13 12:57:10 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on discrimination and accessibility [url] => http://www.lovdata.no/all/tl-20080620-042-0.html ) ) ) [39] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F2. Public employment services [theme_slug] => f2-public-employment-services [theme_id] => 39 [contents] => The Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration (NAV), with local branches all over the country, is responsible for advice services and support for disabled people seeking employment (in or outside mainstream). For people at risk of staying unemployed, a procedure called Work assessment (arbeidsavklaring) is conducted in collaboration between the subject and the NAV officer. The NAV has access to a number of labour market measures intended to facilitate the inclusion in mainstream employment, and also to sheltered employment at special sheltered workplaces or at regular workplaces. The tasks of NAV are not to assist disabled people as such, but to assist people with employment problems, and with special obligations towards people with so-called reduced ability to work, that needs what is called 'specially adapted measures'. The web link to NAV web page has specific information for disabled people. In addition, secondary schools are expected to provide personnel who can generally advise students about future employment. In 2011, the Government initiated a programme called 'Job strategy for disabled people' that specially addresses young (under 30 years) disabled people without employment. A number of measures are strengthened and directed towards this group. [update_date] => 2017-08-17 14:20:23 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Employment and Welfare Authority - disability [url] => https://www.nav.no/no/Bedrift/Inkluderende+arbeidsliv/Tilrettelegg+for+unge+med+nedsatt+funksjonsevne ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Information about 'Job Strategy' [url] => http://www.regjeringen.no/nb/dep/ad/dok/rapporter_planer/planer/2011/jobbstrategi.html?id=657116 ) ) ) [40] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F3. Workplace adaptations [theme_slug] => f3-workplace-adaptations [theme_id] => 40 [contents] => There are a number of measures for adaptations of workplaces for disabled people. Most of them are funded and operated by the Employment and Welfare Authority. Among such measures are ‘adaptation contribution’ (tilretteleggingstilskudd), 'adaptation guarantee' (tilretteleggingsgaranti), work place assessment by a physio-occupational therapist (arbeidsplassvurdering), etc. Many measures are related to the programme/agreement on Inclusive Labour Market (between the Government, Employers Federation, and the Labour union), but it is not exclusive to employers that have signed this agreement. In addition there is support for assistive devices/technology for people that need this in order to improve functioning in employment (Law on Social Security, article 10-5). This funding is part of the national Social Security system and as such an individual right. [update_date] => 2016-05-05 14:29:12 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Measures for an inclusive working life [url] => https://www.nav.no/no/Bedrift/Inkluderende+arbeidsliv/Snarveier/inkluderende-arbeidsliv ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Agreement on Inclusive Working Life (2014-2018): [url] => https://www.regjeringen.no/no/tema/arbeidsliv/arbeidsmiljo-og-sikkerhet/inkluderende_arbeidsliv/ia-avtalen-2014-18/IA-avtalen-2014-2018/id752432/ ) ) ) [41] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F4. Financial incentives [theme_slug] => f4-financial-incentives [theme_id] => 41 [contents] => There are no quota schemes in Norway, but there are a number of financial incentives and programmes for improving qualifications, workplace adaptations, advice to employers, etc. The financial incentives include wage subsidies (temporary or permanent), combinations of incapacity benefit and wages, transport subsidies, adaptation guarantees, 'resting incapacity benefit' (if you have an incapacity benefit and finds a job, the benefit can rest for five years and you do not have to go through the application process again during this period if it turns out that work was not possible), etc. Some of the incentives are primarily directed towards the disabled person, others to the employer (such as wage subsidies, adaptation guarantee, adaptation contribution) and support services from the NAV arbeidslivssenter (Working Life Centres, a public advisory body). The incentives are part of a rather complex web of services, labour market measures and financial incentives. An overview is provided through the web link to a page at the Employment and Welfare Authorities. [update_date] => 2016-05-02 12:02:57 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Overview of labour market measures [url] => https://www.nav.no/no/Bedrift/Inkluderende+arbeidsliv/Tilrettelegg+for+unge+med+nedsatt+funksjonsevne ) ) ) [43] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G1. Official research [theme_slug] => g1-official-research [theme_id] => 43 [contents] => The National Centre for Documentation for People with Disabilities was responsible for putting together data on disability equality between 2006 and 2008. This duty led to Status Reports published in 2007 and 2008. In 2009 this body merged with the Equality and Anti-Discrimination Ombud, and the documentation task had less attention. It was therefore decided to transfer this responsibility to the Directorate on Children, Family and Youth (which also deals with equality and discrimination issues). They have established and are working to further develop a system of documentation that is adapted to the reporting on the UN CPRD. Important updated disability statistics are available on their website (see link below). Statistics Norway gathers data on the employment of disabled people, and the Welfare and Employment Authority gathers data on the use of benefits and employment/benefit careers of people with so-called reduced ability to work. The Directorate of Education gathers data on the use of special education and special schools, but does not distinguish whether this is due to disability or other causes. Other research is carried out through projects rather than regular official channels. However, a number of regular surveys conducted by the Statistics Norway have the possibility to identify disabled people through a set of questions on, for example, activity restrictions. This, in particular, applies to surveys on living conditions and health. [update_date] => 2016-05-02 12:09:29 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Documantation system [url] => http://www.bufdir.no/Nedsatt_funksjonsevne/ ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Link to the Ombud and their work with disability issues [url] => http://www.ldo.no/nyheiter-og-fag/fakta/funksjonsevne/Rettigheter/Hva-er-funksjonshemming/ ) ) ) [44] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G2. Census data [theme_slug] => g2-census-data [theme_id] => 44 [contents] => Censuses in Norway are conducted every tenth year. The last real census (national survey) was in 2001. It did not include question(s) that could be used to identify disabled people, but did include a question about whether the house/apartment was accessible for wheelchair users. The census in 2011 was based on putting together information that already was in administrative and statistical registers. Disability issues and statistics appear not to be included in this census. [update_date] => 2016-05-02 12:11:26 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Folke- og boligtellinger (Population and housing census) [url] => https://www.ssb.no/fobhoved ) ) ) [45] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G3. Labour Force Survey [theme_slug] => g3-labour-force-survey [theme_id] => 45 [contents] => Statistics Norway gathers data on disabled peoples’ labour market participation annually as part of the national Labour Force Survey (Arbeiskraftsundersøkelsen). This survey is conducted four times a year by Statistics Norway. Since 2002, a disability supplement has been included once a year. The identification of disabled people is based on one self-assessment question. A definition of disability is read to the respondent, followed by the question 'Do you in your opinion have a disability?'; The definition read is 'By disability we mean physical or mental health problems of a longstanding nature that can lead to limitations in everyday life'. Then a number of examples are given. [update_date] => 2016-05-02 12:14:06 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Funksjonshemma på arbeidsmarknaden (Disabled people in the labour market) [url] => https://www.ssb.no/arbeid-og-lonn/statistikker/akutu/aar/2015-09-02 ) ) ) [46] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G4. Disability equality indicators [theme_slug] => g4-disability-equality-indicators [theme_id] => 46 [contents] => There is no full set of disability equality indicators in existence, but the Directorate of Children, Youth and Family (which also is responsible for equalisation policies) has established a system, which still is under development (see link below). The facts and figures are based on the statistics from a number of sources, such as research reports, data from Statistics Norway, etc. In 2012, Statistics Norway proposed a set of indicators based on a regularly gathered surveys' data (see additional link). The indicators are gathered for all people in surveys where disabled people can be identified mainly through questions on either self-assessments or activity limitations. The initiatives were related to the (then) coming ratification of the UN Convention (ratified in 2013). Confer also G1. [update_date] => 2016-05-02 12:23:46 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Disability facts and figures [url] => http://www.bufdir.no/Nedsatt_funksjonsevne/ ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Report on disability equality indicators from Statistics Norway: [url] => https://www.ssb.no/helse/artikler-og-publikasjoner/personer-med-nedsatt-funksjonsevne ) ) ) [48] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H1. Awareness raising programs [theme_slug] => h1-awareness-raising-programs [theme_id] => 48 [contents] => The Equality and Anti-Discrimination Ombudsman has as a part of its task to promote equality for the groups protected by the equality and non-discriminations legislation (gender, ethnicity, religion, disability, and also in working life, sexual orientation and age). There are also, on a less regular basis, awareness raising programmes organised by the Directorates or other public bodies, and this is, in particular, a responsibility of the Directorate of Children, Youth and Family. Awareness tends also to be a part of action plans. I am not aware of any current awareness campaign, but in 2010-2013 there was one on the living arrangements for people with intellectual disabilities: 'People with intellectual disabilities should not be discriminated against'. [update_date] => 2016-05-02 12:38:09 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Equality and anti-discrimination Ombudsman [url] => http://www.ldo.no/en/nyheiter-og-fag/om-ombudet/arbeidet-vart/ ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The information programme 'Neither should people with intellectual disabilities be discriminated against': [url] => https://www.regjeringen.no/globalassets/upload/bld/informasjon.pdf ) ) ) [49] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H2. Training for teachers [theme_slug] => h2-training-for-teachers [theme_id] => 49 [contents] => Teacher education, both at the national level and at the university colleges, has no specific module on disability, but they will typically have some courses including such issues as adapted education, special education, inclusive education, diversity etc. Even the Circular on teacher education is somewhat unspecific on this issue. However, special education, adaptive education or the like is offered as optional modules and even as masters programs at some universities and colleges. [update_date] => 2017-06-22 16:58:38 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Circular: Framework teacher curriculum [url] => http://www.regjeringen.no/nb/dep/kd/dok/rapporter_planer/planer/2006/rammeplaner-for-hoyere-utdanning.html?id=587302 ) ) ) [50] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H3. Training for lawyers [theme_slug] => h3-training-for-lawyers [theme_id] => 50 [contents] => Disability equality/ rights/ awareness is not included in the compulsory parts of the study programme for lawyers. Disability is, however, a part of an optional module on Equality and Discrimination law, and also optional modules on Health legislation, Social Security and Social Welfare. This description applies to the Faculty of Law at the University of Oslo. Also, the University of Tromsø offers specialised courses in discrimination law. [update_date] => 2017-08-17 14:24:41 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Equality and Discrimination law at bachelor level, the University of Oslo (exists also at Masters level) [url] => http://www.uio.no/studier/emner/jus/jus/JUR1590/index.html ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Discrimination law at master's level, the University of Tromsø [url] => https://uit.no/utdanning/emner/emne/508594/jur-3611 ) ) ) [51] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H4. Training for doctors [theme_slug] => h4-training-for-doctors [theme_id] => 51 [contents] => Few official sources report on the question of training for doctors, but according to informal well-informed sources (e.g. psychiatrist involved in needed qualifications for doctors to work with intellectually disabled people), there is very little on disability awareness or equality issues in the education of the medical profession in Norway. It can vary across universities, and there will be some teaching on the rights according to health related acts, including social security. There was nothing found on disability in a web search of the medicine programmes at the universities of Oslo and Trondheim. [update_date] => 2016-05-02 12:50:39 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Study programme in medicine at the University of Oslo (in English) [url] => http://www.med.uio.no/english/studies/programmes/index.html ) ) ) [52] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H5. Training for engineers [theme_slug] => h5-training-for-engineers [theme_id] => 52 [contents] => There is in general an increasing awareness on universal design and accessible technology observed among the Norwegian engineers and architects. It is however difficult to find specific courses in the curriculum but that is probably because it is part of the courses. According to the webpage of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, there are specific courses on universal design in the construction industry only at two Universities/University colleges. At one university, the technology department had recently advertised a position for an associate professor in universal design. The reason for the increasing awareness of disability and universal design in engineering is probably connected to the articles on universal design in the Discrimination and Accessibility Act (Chapter 3, paras. 13 and 15), and also the Article on accessibility to ICT (Chapter 3, paras. 14 and 29). [update_date] => 2016-05-23 17:14:04 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Discrimination and Accessibility Act (LOV-2013-06-21-61) [url] => https://lovdata.no/dokument/NL/lov/2013-06-21-61 ) ) ) [53] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H6. International development aid [theme_slug] => h6-international-development-aid [theme_id] => 53 [contents] => The third Norwegian Action Plan on disability (1998-2001) suggested that disability issues should be included as an integral part of Norwegian developmental aid programmes. This was followed up by the Department of Foreign Affairs in 1999 with a 'Plan for working with people with disabilities in development aid' and a 2002 plan, check list and monitoring mechanism from the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD). The main idea is to include disability issues as an aspect of most development aid programmes. NORAD is also working with the Atlas alliance (Atlasalliansen) on development programmes. Atlasalliansen is a collaboration between disabled people organisations on international development aid. The 2002 plan was evaluated in 2011, published in March 2012. Some news were encouraging, for instance regarding a strengthening of disabled people organisations. However, the main result was that the 2002 plan led to few changes. Officers in the field were not aware of the official instructions, disability was not included in general programmes and only 0.5% of the funding was used for projects concerning disability. The Department of Foreign Affairs responded with a followup Action Plan in 2013. The impact of this is unknown. [update_date] => 2016-05-12 13:41:40 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Plan for arbeidet med mennesker med funksjonshemming i bistanden (Plan for inclusion of disabled people in international developmental aid programmes) [url] => https://www.regjeringen.no/no/dokumenter/bistand_funksjonshemming/id444412/ ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Evaluation of the 2002 plan [url] => https://www.norad.no/om-bistand/publikasjon/2012/mainstreaming-disability-in-the-new-development-paradigm-evaluation-of-norwegian-support-to-promote-the-rights-of-persons-with-disabilities/ ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Follow-up Action Plan [url] => https://www.norad.no/globalassets/import-2162015-80434-am/www.norad.no-ny/filarkiv/evalueringsavdelingens-filer/oppfolginger/oppfolgingsplan.-evaluering-av-norsk-utviklingssamarbeid-til-fremme-av-funksjonshemmedes-rettigheter.pdf ) ) ) ) ) ) )